Video Use in Teacher Education: Transition from a Teaching Tool to an Assessment Tool

Video Use in Teacher Education: Transition from a Teaching Tool to an Assessment Tool

Ashley Hodge (Duquesne University, USA) and David D. Carbonara (Duquesne University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8162-0.ch001
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Abstract

Video is a valuable technology used for teaching and learning and specifically, video plays a significant part in effectively preparing pre-service teachers (PSTs) for the profession. Video is now being used as a form of PST assessment, which raises concern as to whether PSTs are being properly supported in this process. Therefore, this chapter turns to years of research on video use in teacher education to 1.) Identify ways that video has effectively been utilized in teacher education 2.) Understand the most operative aspects of video with respect to both the developer and the observer 3.) Explain the concern surrounding video as a means for assessment in teacher education and 4.) Suggest ways to support PSTs in recording and creating their own video segments of teaching. In doing so, this chapter aims to contribute to improving teacher education programs in terms of video-based assessment.
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Introduction

In light of the rapid adoption of portfolio-based performance assessments in teacher education programs across the globe, and in particular the Educator Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) initiative (edTPA, 2014) in the United States (U.S.), this chapter is committed to revealing the significance of video in teacher education. Decades of research indicate videos are an effective technology used for teaching and learning (Bannink, 2009; Brunvand, 2010; Barnett, 2006); video has been used for classroom learning, observational learning, professional development, case analysis, and countless other ways throughout the years. More specifically, research has emphasized the role video plays in effectively preparing pre-service teachers (PSTs) for the profession (Gastic, 2013; Van den Berg, Jansen, & Blijleven, 2004). Video has been used to provide PSTs with models of classroom practice (Stockero, 2008) and has been successfully implemented for professional development purposes (Baran & Cagiltay, 2010; Barnett, 2006; Knight, Pedersen & Peters, 2004; Miller, 2009). Additionally, video has been recognized as a beneficial tool for personal growth and learning, affording a different perspective of an individual’s own teaching (Gastic, 2013; Rosaen, Lundeberg, Terpstra, Cooper, Fu, & Niu, 2010; Sherin & van Es, 2005).

More recently video has been underscored at an ever high level – on account of portfolio-based performance assessments. In particular, the recent adoption of the edTPA legislation in teacher education programs across the United States (U.S.) requires PSTs to record and develop a teaching segment that displays their level of readiness to teach. Proponents of the edTPA believe it enables candidates to synthesize all the things they are supposed to be learning in both their course work and their field/student teaching experiences – it reveals whether their understanding can translate into application (Darling-Hammond, 2010). The creation of the video is scored by a non-biased, outside entity and this one-time summative assessment of the portfolio determines whether PSTs are granted access to the profession.

Considering the pressure that PSTs, particularly in the U.S., have to create an effective and “passable” video of their demonstrated teaching ability, it is advised that teacher education programs properly support PSTs in developing effective videos of individual teaching. Although video use in teacher education is not a new phenomenon, the way it is being used is transitioning from an instructional tool to an evaluative tool. Therefore, this chapter turns to years of research on video use in teacher education to (1.) Identify ways that video has effectively been utilized in teacher education for instruction to better understand its role in assessment (2.) Understand the most operative aspects of video with respect to both the developer and the observer (3.) Briefly explain the issues surrounding video use in teacher education and (4.) Suggest ways to support PSTs in recording and creating their own video segments of teaching.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Assessment: Is the deliberate process of collecting information about students’ learning, using any of a number of different formats, to evaluate their learning and to make instruction-related decisions.

Pre-Service Teachers (PSTs): Are individuals whom are preparing to become Kindergarten through 12 th Grade teachers, which are the grades required to obtain a high school diploma in the United States. PSTs acquire knowledge of the teaching-learning process. They also have experiences that help them to acquire the pedagogical knowledge of student-teacher interaction.

Video: Is an electronic medium for the recording and playback of moving visual images. The video is typically a recording of sight and sound at an optimal rate of 30 frames per second. Most video devices record at a rate of 24 to 30 frames per second. The playback of 30 frames in a second provides the illusion of motion. The audio is recorded, or at least encoded, into the video so that the images and the audio are played back simultaneously.

Teacher Education: Is the field of study that prepares individuals to become teachers in Kindergarten through 12 th grade.

Teacher Program Assessment: Is the systematic process that measures, assesses and evaluates the performance of the teacher preparation program. The process is usually based on some state, regional, and/or national set of standards and competencies. Teacher preparation programs provide artifacts and evidence of their adherence to, and practice of these standards and competencies. An agency then evaluates the evidence and renders a judgment as to the degree of compliance that a teacher preparation program satisfies the proficiency of the standards and competencies. Programs that provide evidence of compliance receive authorization to be ultimately accredited by the Department of Education.

Educator Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA): Is a process that evaluates the readiness of pre-service teachers to teach in classrooms in Kindergarten through 12 th Grade. It was developed by faculty and staff at the Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning, and Equity (SCALE) and is an assessment process that developed out of the performance-based assessments of teachers from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), the Performance Assessment for California Teachers and the Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC).

Teacher Educators: Are faculty members in teacher preparation programs. The teacher educator minimally possesses the knowledge of the teaching-learning process and possesses the skills of excellent classroom management and the pedagogical process. These programs are usually housed in the schools, colleges and departments of education.

Video-Based Assessment: Is the process of recording and assessing the teacher’s performance of classroom interaction for the purpose of instructing students. The recording is then evaluated against a series of benchmarks, rubrics and guidelines to determine the preponderance of evidence of the teacher’s acceptable performance of best practices in classroom management and assistance provided to endure that students learn the content of the course.

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