Videos as Tools of Expertise-Based Training (XBT) for the Professional Development of Teachers: XBT Videos for Teacher Development

Videos as Tools of Expertise-Based Training (XBT) for the Professional Development of Teachers: XBT Videos for Teacher Development

Hatice Sancar-Tokmak (Mersin University, Turkey)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0711-6.ch013
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Abstract

Teachers are the main foundations of the education system, and their professional development during their working life is vital in ensuring the success of any attempts to change that system. It is for this reason that in-service training is high on the agenda of most countries, although previous studies have shown that teachers are unable to transfer the knowledge they gain through in-service training to in-class activities, as more long-lasting help is required. One way in which teachers can be provided help in this regard is through the use of technology in line with a strong instructional design theory. This chapter aims to address this issue by showing how videos can be used in the professional development of teachers as part of an expertise-based training (XBT) program. The chapter is compiled in seven main parts: 1) Introduction 2) Background 3) Main Focus of the Chapter 5) Solutions and Recommendations 6) Future Research Directions, and finally, 7) Conclusions.
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Introduction

According to Meskill, Mossop, DiAngelo and Pasquale (2002), adapting curricula, classroom design dynamics, teaching approaches and teaching with technologies constitute some of the more complex processes that teachers must work through. Similarly, Grossman, Hammerness and McDonald (2009) advocate that teaching is very complex practice. Avalos (2011) relates this complex process to professional development, and suggests that the requirements of professional development include: “…cognitive and emotional involvement of teachers individually and collectively, the capacity and willingness to examine where each one stands in terms of convictions and beliefs and the perusal and enactment of appropriate alternatives for improvement or change” (p. 10). Darling-Hammond and Richardson (2009) claim that professional development may prove to be more effective if focused on teaching practice and reflection, while Stürmer, Könings, and Seidel (2013) emphasize the importance of providing professional vision, which is the characteristics of experienced teachers. Sherin and van Es (2009) describe professional vision as the ability of noticing and interpreting important classroom interactions by stating the role of expertise in teaching. Avalos (2011) highlights the many research studies investigating the use of videos to this end, providing opportunities for teachers to observe real classroom practices and reflect what they have learned within a professional development program. Similarly, Barab, MaKinster and Scheckler (2003) state that an effective professional development environment cannot exist without a community of practitioners with responsibilities in the building and maintenance of their environment and the sharing of experiences. They go on to claim that during their professional development program, one medium that they use to allow teachers to observe, discuss and reflect on a pedagogical theory is video (Barab, et al., 2003). Moreover, Sherin and van Es (2009) state that “we believe that far too little is known about how video supports teacher learning, particularly given its extensive use in teacher education and professional development.” (p.20) That said, the level of contribution of technology to the effectiveness of instruction depends mainly on how instructors, accepted as the main foundations of the education system, integrate them into classroom activities. Mishra and Koehler (2006) state that the reason behind any lack of success in the use of technology in education stems mainly from researchers who focus on the technology itself rather than how it is used by the instructors. For this reason, many scholars of educational technology, such as Ertmer (1999), Jonassen (1995), Januszewski and Molenda (2008), Merill (1983), and Reiguluth and Stein (1983), focus on how technology can contribute to the effectiveness of instruction, and put forward theories, instructional design models or carry out researches to this end.

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