Waste Gas End-of-Pipe Treatment Techniques in Italian IPPC Chemical Plants

Waste Gas End-of-Pipe Treatment Techniques in Italian IPPC Chemical Plants

Gaetano Battistella (ISPRA, Italy), Giuseppe Di Marco (ISPRA, Italy), Carlo Carlucci (ISPRA, Italy), Raffaella Manuzzi (ISPRA, Italy), Federica Bonaiuti (ISPRA, Italy) and Celine Ndong (ISPRA, Italy)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 16
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2255-3.ch275

Abstract

Due to more stringent emission regulations, very efficient emission control technologies are required adopting National IPPC Permits based on BAT Conclusions. Some abatement techniques are operating inside IPPC plants based in Italy. This paper include the results of a screening of Italian IPPC Plants up to day, trying to highlight operating conditions of abatement devices and possible already existing improvements for several compounds removal. The abatement techniques analyzed operate mainly on VOC content reduction or on inorganic compounds abatement. ISPRA experience has allowed to analyze different operative conditions, related with abatement techniques and their application in IPPC permitted plants. The results of this analysis allow to suggest a possible reconsideration and new assessment for some end-of-pipe devices, in order to find other better defined operational contexts, different from actually Italian provisions and an evaluation of current operational performances of the devices, in order to improve their environmental conditions, consistently with BAT application.
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Introduction

Due to more stringent emission regulations, very efficient new advanced emission control technologies are required adopting National IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevent and Control) Permits (below AIA) based on Best Available Technologies (below BAT) Conclusions.

Some of these techniques are operating inside Chemical Plants and Refineries based in Italy, such as Oxidation, Adsorption and Absorption devices. Other techniques (i.e. the ones that are new advanced technologies still in research or in demonstration state), are not subject of this Paper, based on describing running situation inside operating IPPC Chemical Plants and Refineries licensed in Italy at National Level.

This paper includes, but are not limited to, the results of a screening of Italian Chemical IPPC Industries and Refineries up to day, trying to highlight operating conditions and possible already existing improvements for removal of:

  • VOC and other cancer causing and toxic substances;

  • Dust, Mercury and heavy metals;

  • NOx and Nitrogen compounds;

  • SOx and Sulphur compounds;

  • Chlorides and Fluoride compounds.

The abatement techniques analyzed in this work operate mainly on VOC content reduction, through the use of Oxidizing devices or on inorganic compounds abatement (in addition to VOC), through the use of Absorption or Adsorption devices.

Superior Environmental Protection and Research Institute (below ISPRA) experience, mainly developed as Technical Support to Italian Minister of Environment, Land and Sea (below IMELS), has allowed to analyze different operative conditions, related with abatement techniques and their application in IPPC permitted plants.

Many pollutants emitted from IPPC plants (according to Environmental Permits limit values) have been identified and charted a profile of possible application for abatement techniques in these plants in their different IPPC categories.

The results of this analysis allow to suggest a possible reconsideration and, also, new assessment for some end-of-pipe devices, in order to find other better defined operational contexts, different from actually Italian provisions and, also, an evaluation of current operational performances of the devices, in order to improve their environmental conditions, consistently with BAT application.

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Background

In Italy, IPPC Permit is an authorization released for environmental protection purposes, in order to prevent and control pollution ‘at the source’ by means of an integrated authorization, allowing operation of IPPC industrial activities with specified production’s characteristics and dimensions, at both national and regional levels (Battistella, 2013).

The list of the categories of these specific industrial activities is regulated by the Italian Legislative Decree n. 59/2005 and s.m.i. (Italian Legislative Decree n. 152/2006 and s.m.i.) that adopts and endorses the Directive n. 96/61/EC and s.m.i. (Directive 2008/1/EC and s.m.i.) concerning integrated pollution prevention and control (actually recast in the Directive 2010/75/EU).

IPPC permits – by law definition - plan and perform an integrated prevention and control set in the exact point of pollution (‘a la source’), e.g. pollutants are identified, declared, controlled, detected and monitored in the admission/emission points of the IPPC industrial activities, as well as during all activities of industrial plants’ operation (Battistella & Di Marco, 2013a; Battistella & Di Marco, 2013b).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Absorption: Mass transfer between a soluble gas and a solvent – often water – in contact with each other.

AIA: (Italian IPPC Permit): Operating permit released for environmental protection purposes, in order to prevent and control pollution.

Thermal Oxidation: Oxidation process of combustible gases and odorants in a waste gas stream, by heating a mixture of contaminants with air or oxygen above its auto-ignition point in a furnace and maintaining it at high temperature for sufficient time to complete combustion to carbon dioxide and water.

ISPRA: Superior Environmental Protection and Research Institute.

IPPC: Integrated Pollution Prevent and Control.

Catalytic Oxidation: Oxidation process of combustible gases and odorants in a waste gas stream, by heating a mixture of contaminants with air or oxygen above its auto-ignition point. The gas, after passing through the flame area, passes through a catalyst bed. The catalyst has the effect of increasing the oxidation reaction rate, enabling conversion at lower reaction temperatures than in thermal oxidation units.

PTS: Total Suspended Particulate, the atmospheric particulate matter.

IMELS: Italian Minister of Environment, Land and Sea.

BREF: Reference Document on Best Available Technologies.

TOC: Total Organic Carbon, the amount of carbon found in an organic compound.

Adsorption: Heterogeneous reaction in which gas molecules are retained on a solid surface (adsorbent) that prefers specific compounds to others and thus removes them from effluent streams.

VOC: Volatile Organic Compound, organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate from the liquid form.

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