Water Pollution Burden and Techniques for Control

Water Pollution Burden and Techniques for Control

Kanav Dhir, Meenakshi Jatayan, Shakti Kumar
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 34
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3379-5.ch009
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The enhancements in the socio-economic status of many people has come from the expansion of agricultural and industrial production. But, some of the activities associated with this expansion have adversely affected water quality. This leads to a negative impact on public health, eminence of life, and environment. This chapter sets out to explain the various factors that lead to water contamination and different mitigation techniques to manage them. We need this knowledge so as to develop suitable solutions for a broad range of environmental problems.
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Water is the basic need for sustaining life as its availability both in quantity and quality are important. Earlier importance of the water was from the viewpoint of the quantity as civilization developed around the water bodies for the support of agriculture, transportation and domestic purposes. In the past, quality of water was judged through physical senses of sight, taste and smell. Recent development in medical sciences suggests some other methods for determination of water quality on the basis of biological, chemical and pathological pathways (Aggarwal, 2005). The relationship between human waste, drinking water and diseases (Halder et al, 2015) that are transmitted to humans through drinking contaminated water is found and is shown in Table 1. With the rapid increase in industrialisation and population, the demand for water is shooting up every day. Clean drinking water supply and basic sanitation are vital human needs for good health. Water performs several metabolic, physiological and other essential activities in human body and other living beings. It is used in our daily activities for various purposes such as drinking, cooking, bathing and in washing clothes and utensils.

Table 1.
Common diseases transmitted to humans through drinking contaminated water
Types of organismsDiseasesEffects
BacteriaTyphoid fever     • Diarrhoea
     • Severe vomiting
     • Enlarged spleen
     • Inflamed intestine
     • Often fatal if untreated
Cholera     • Diarrhoea
     • Severe vomiting
     • Dehydration
     • Often fatal if untreated
Bacterial dysentery     • Diarrhoea
     • Bleeding
     • rarely fatal except in infants without proper treatment
Enteritis     • Severe stomach pain
     • Nausea
     • Vomiting
     • Rarely fatal
VirusesInfectious hepatitis (Type B)     • Fever
     • Severe headache
     • Loss of appetite
     • Abdominal pain
     • Jaundice
     • Enlarged liver
     • Rarely fatal but may cause permanent liver damage
Poliomyelitis     • Fever
     • Diarrhoea
     • Backache
     • Sore throat
     • Aches in limbs
     • Can infect spinal cord and cause paralysis
     • Muscle weakness
Parasitic protozoaAmoebic dysentery     • Severe diarrhoea
     • Headache
     • Abdominal pain
     • Chills
     • Fever; if not treated can cause liver abscess, bowel perforation and death
Giardiasis     • Diarrhoea
     • Abdominal cramps
     • Flatulence
     • Belching
     • Fatigue
Crytosporidium     • Severe diarrhoea
     • Cramps for up to 3 weeks
     • Possible death for people with weakened immune systems
Parasitic wormsSchistosomiasis     • Abdominal pain
     • Skin rash
     • Anaemia
     • Chronic fatigue
     • Chronic general ill health
Ancylostomiasis     • Severe anaemia
     • Possible symptoms of bronchial infection

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