Whole Systems/Holistic Approaches in Individual and Collective Levels

Whole Systems/Holistic Approaches in Individual and Collective Levels

Murako Saito (Waseda University, Japan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-284-8.ch005
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Abstract

In managing complexity and ambiguity, we need holistic or whole systems approaches. Complementary systemic approaches to integrate some separate systems are needed for fostering organizational adaptability or organizational flexibility in the changing social environment. It is not sufficient simply to keep in line with the standards established in the past by a particular discipline, but it is important to encourage the participants to progress for coping with the changes in society. Cognitive misfits between individual and organizational levels result in a decrement of quality of service which actually leads to the decrement of business performance. Conceptual frameworks of whole systems of human society, namely conceptual frameworks of human cognition and action in individual and collective levels are introduced for discussing the alignment of cognitive misfits and transformation of organizational culture. Classifications and categorizations are also introduced for further analysis of human cognition-action coupling process in individual and collective levels. Typology of the methodologies for intervening into complex social systems is discussed in the latter part of this chapter for pursuing the assessment and control of various method biases and also for determining the axes in mapping cognition-action in the actual fields. Continuous inquiry into the good and intervention to complex social systems play crucial roles in the approaches toward effective organizational transformation.
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Conceptual Framework Of Holistic Or Whole Systems Of Human Action

Two conceptual frameworks of holistic or whole human systems are introduced. One is the concept of human systems developed by Wilber, 2000 which is well known in the field of Cognitive Sciences and has been frequently applied in aligning collaboration with multiple disciplines. The other is the concept of dynamic and resilient organizational systems developed by Schwaninger,2000,2006; called an intelligent organization of which structure is an icosahedron.

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