Wireless Mesh Sensor Networks with Mobile Devices: A Comprehensive Review

Wireless Mesh Sensor Networks with Mobile Devices: A Comprehensive Review

Carlos Meralto (Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal & Instituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal), José Moura (Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal & Instituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal) and Rui Marinheiro (Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal & Instituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0486-3.ch005
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Abstract

Mesh communications is emerging as a popular networking solution. Mesh networks have a decentralized and multihop design. These characteristics arouse interest for the research of the following features: cooperation, task distribution, scalability and communication with limited infrastructure support. This chapter studies relevant solutions in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) with a mesh design that is used with mobile devices. The use of mobile devices on WSNs has recently grown due to: hardware evolution, large number of embedded sensors and daily high utilization of handheld devices. Consequently, novel requisites in the design and implementation of WSNs urge to be satisfied: autonomy of sensors battery and, efficient data exchange amongst sensors and the Internet. A real mesh testbed with two Layer 2 mesh solutions (Open802.11s and B.A.T.M.A.N) was implemented with different topologies. Some relevant results for a mesh network are discussed in terms of its scalability, performance and volatility.
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2. Mesh Networks Implemented With Mobile Devices

WMNs on MDs have been the focus of various projects and feature a wide variety of solutions. It is necessary to analyze and compare relevant solutions, finding out relevant features to be implemented, especially in mesh scenarios with handheld MDs. The implementation of a WMN with MDs can be done at different OSI layers. The standard mesh solution (“802.11s - IEEE Standard for Information Technology,” 2011) is implemented at Layer 2. There are also implementations at Layer 2.5 (with additional software between Layers 2 and 3), Layer 3 and Layer 7.

The Open Garden (“Open Garden,” 2014) is an implementation of WMNs focused on establishing a connection among devices in situations where there is no coverage or network capacity. It allows routing and multihop discovery so that users can share their own WiFi/3G/4G connection, which operates as a model of “crowd-source bandwidth”. This solution uses the application layer to implement the WMN.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Discovery Time: The elapsed time since a node A sent an ARP request message until node A updated the ARP table and sent the ICMP ping request to node B.

Intra-Flow Interference: Occurs when nodes on the same path or flow with the same channel competing between each other for channel bandwidth.

Inter-Flow Interference: Caused by other flows that are operating on the same channel and competing for the medium.

Isotonicity: Property implies that the order of the weights of two paths must be preserved when we append or prefix a common third path on the two paths.

Bootstrap Time: The elapsed time since a router was added to an existing network to discover all the remaining nodes.

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