Women on Boards Improving Women's Empowerment Through Entrepreneurship in Turkey

Women on Boards Improving Women's Empowerment Through Entrepreneurship in Turkey

Meltem Ince Yenilmez (Yasar University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8012-6.ch002
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It appears to be a collective acceptance that women must reason like men, act like women, look like girls, and work like horses. Talking about women vs. men in leadership, a person must first differentiate between the female aspect of leadership—delegating, pull leadership participative, encouraging, motivating, inspiring—and the male element of leadership—enforcing regulations, pushing people, setting rules, creating obligations, corporate behavior, putting limitations. The chapter contains the existing literature concerning women; entrepreneurship and family business in Turkey is studied, followed by the revision of the entrepreneurship of women due to Turkey's cultural context. Profiles of Turkish entrepreneurial women are deliberated upon. Then problems of entrepreneurial women are discussed in the latter segment. The chapter concludes with the applications and policy recommendations to aid entrepreneurship of women in Turkey.
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Economic and entrepreneurial studies on gender inequality reveal that men have higher motivation towards entrepreneurship than women and they tend to attain greater success than their female counterparts (Robinson & Stubberud, 2009; Fairlie & Robb, 2009). This inequality can either originate from individual personalities or be just a common occurrence (Nardone, 2007). Artz (2016) nonetheless suggested that a reasonable proportion of these studies end up making a partial conclusion because they are usually short of essential controls such as the scale of enterprise (Artz, 2016), the human difference (Cliff, 1998) and economic size (Robb & Watson, 2012).

Entrepreneurship remains an inadequately studied subject in most developing countries (Naude, 2008) although the renewed interest these countries have been showing towards the topic of late (Naude, 2010; Minniti & Naude, 2010). Even with noticeable growth rates, the percentage of female entrepreneurs in these countries remains relatively low compared to what is attainable in developed countries (Gimenez-Nadal, Molina, & Ortega, 2012; Campana, Gimenez-Nadal, & Molina, 2017a).

Naude et al. (2008), Campana, Gimenez-Nadal, and Molina (2017a) highlighted possible reasons developing countries had shifted their attention to entrepreneurship, and they are:

  • Poverty alleviation,

  • Economic growth and development, and

  • The impact of entrepreneurship on the wellbeing of households.

Terjesen and Amoros (2010) specifically discovered that though women have the upper hand, there is a gender difference between men and women in the entrepreneurial sectors of the Caribbean and Latin American economies. Even though the level of entrepreneurial engagement of women remains lower than that of men because of some issues (Kelley et al., 2016; Artz, 2016), they have recently improved to about 67% of the entrepreneurial engagement level of men.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Prospects: The possibility of something that can be happened in the future.

Enabling Factors: These factors are formotivatevation to people to change behavior.

Entrepreneurial Responsibility: The entrepreneur of the firm/company leads and conducts every stage of managing, controlling, and motivating employees.

Opportunity: It is a possibility of doing something.

Family Business: A family-owned business related either by blood or marriage is an organization where two or more family members are involved, and the family members make all the decisions, management, and control.

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