Work-Based Learning Strategies and Innovative Work Behavior: Business Tourism Perspective

Work-Based Learning Strategies and Innovative Work Behavior: Business Tourism Perspective

Sadia Shaheen (Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan) and Muhammad Waseem Bari (Lyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3142-6.ch003

Abstract

This study investigates the relationship between learning strategies and innovative work behavior. The author chooses business organizations (e.g., textile industry, sports industry, and pharmaceutical companies) for the purpose of data collection. Particularly, those employees are targeted who avail business tours and conferences on a regular basis. Hence, the convenience sampling technique is used to collect data. A total of 800 questionnaires were distributed, but 535 proper filled questionnaires having response rate 66.87% were utilized. Data were collected in two-time waves. At T1 (Time lag 1), data were collected regarding employee demographics (e.g., gender, age, and education and work experience) as well as independent variables (e.g., cognitive learning strategies as well as behavioral learning strategies). At T2 (Time lag 2), data were collected on the dependent variable (innovative work behavior). The results of the study indicate that CLS and BLS have a positive impact on IWB. Managerial and theoretical implications are also discussed along with limitations and future directions.
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Introduction

Learning is an essential part of professional life for sustainable competitive advantage and growth of individuals, groups as well as organizations (Kim & Lee, 2013; Widmann, Messmann, & Mulder, 2016). To obtain relevant knowledge, expertise and capabilities through formal ways (e.g., training, workshops, and conferences, diplomas, certificates and degrees) and informal ways (e.g., interaction with colleagues, learning that happens in the daily life, in the workplace, in the family, and in the communities) is essential part of working life (Kortsch, Schulte, & Kauffeld, 2019). Both types of learning are essential for the growth and development of individuals and organizations (Nikolova, Van Ruysseveldt, De Witte, & Syroit, 2014).

Previously, the concerned of management was on formal learning and enhancing knowledge and expertise through formal ways of learning, but the trend has been changing with the changing demands of the working environment (Bunderson & Boumgarden, 2010). With the changing requirements of professional life, the practitioners focused on work-based learning (WBL) and thinking on enhancing their knowledge, skills, and expertise through interaction with other colleagues and communities as well (Malmberg et al., 2019). Enhancing employee’s learning has become the necessity of the management to survive in the dynamic work settings (Kwakman, 2003). Despite having all necessary formal expertise and skills, informal learning has grabbed the attention of management to enrich employee’s expertise as well as to face the changing demands of their stakeholders (Graen, Hui, & Taylor, 2006). Despite having the ardent importance of WBL in organizations, there is a few research evidence on how to enhance WBL as well as little is known about the underlying mechanism of enhancing employee’s learning at the workplace, particularly contextual factors understudied. Holman, Epitropaki, & Fernie (2001) defined dimensions of WBL as Cognitive learning Strategies CLS and Behavioral Learning Strategies BLS. Organizations are motivating their employees to polish their expertise by utilizing both types of learning CLS as well as BLS so that they could be more creative, innovative and they could complete their professional assignments in a unique way (Penfold, 2008). Innovation at the workplace is essential for the individual as well organization to cope with the changing workplace demands (Widmann et al., 2016). The key ingredients of innovation and creativity are learning and WBL is understudied in relation to innovative work behavior (IWB). IWB is defined as the generation as well as the execution of new ideas (Wynen, Boon, Kleizen, & Verhoest, 2019).

Figure 1.

Theoretical framework

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Key Terms in this Chapter

Behavioral Work-Based Learning Strategies: Learning new skills, expertise, and knowledge through peers, subordinates, and supervisors. Hence, learning through interaction with coworkers and supervisors is known as behavioral learning strategies. The subtypes of behavioral work-based learning strategies are known as (1) learning through interaction with the supervisor and (2) learning through interaction with colleagues.

Learning Through Interaction With Colleagues: When employees exchange ideas and learn new ways of doing things through the discussion with peers and coworkers this is known as learning through interaction with colleagues.

Learning Through Experimentation: Experimentation is described as the way of obtaining new knowledge and addition in the existing knowledge through the experimentation of the existing work procedures and practices.

Learning Through Reflection: Reflection is described as the way of obtaining new knowledge and addition in the existing knowledge through reflection on the current work practices and approaches.

Cognitive Work-Based Learning Strategies: Examination and organization of new data in the light of current knowledge e.g. reflection and experimentation. Therefore, the subtypes of cognitive learning strategies are described as (1) learning through reflection and (2) learning through experimentation.

Learning Through Interaction With Supervisor: When employees exchange ideas and learn new ways of doing things through the discussion with the supervisor/leader this is known as learning through interaction with the supervisor.

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