Work Role Stress and Employee Outcomes: Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction

Work Role Stress and Employee Outcomes: Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction

Bindu Chhabra (International Management Institute, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-4831-7.ch014
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Abstract

Work Stress is taking its toll on the working adults and the evidence of its detrimental effects is building in India as in United States and other developed countries. Research has shown that the work stress can lead to physical and psychological disorders that reduce job performance and negatively affect other employee outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine the direct effect of work role stress on job satisfaction and two dimensions of employee outcomes i.e., organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and turnover intention in the Indian organizations. The study further aimed to investigate the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship between work role stress and two employee outcomes, i.e., organizational citizenship behaviour and turnover intentions. Data, using a structured questionnaire comprising the standard scales for work role stress, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviour and turnover intentions, was collected from a diverse range of organizations in Delhi and NCR.
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Introduction

Work stress is a common concern for managers and organizations and has been a popular topic within the public media over the past decade (Mamberto, 2007; Sanchez, 2011; Scarff, 2000). The consequences of stress are of utmost importance to both the employees and the employers. Previous research has shown that employees across all levels in the organizational hierarchy are susceptible to the negative consequences of stress (Kiev, 1987; Spielberger, Vagg & Wasala, 2003). Stress has been shown to have deleterious effects on employees’ mental and physical health, as well as on organizational outcomes such as job satisfaction, job performance and employee turnover (Ngo, Foley & Loi, 2005; Kahn & Brosier, 1992; Newton & Jimmieson, 2009; O'Driscoll & Beehr, 1994).

According to a survey by Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India in 2015, increasingly demanding schedules and high stress levels in the private sector employees are leading to depression or general anxiety disorders and have wide range of effects like daytime fatigue, physical discomfort or low pain threshold leading to increased absenteeism and performance deterioration. The survey further points out that nearly 45% of the corporate employees in private sector sleep less than 6 hours a day, leading to severe sleep disorders. A high cost economy which has been in prolonged slump; shrinking incomes and fear of layoffs are considered to be some of the causes. On-the-job stressors range from ambiguous job roles and deadline pressures, which are compounded by off-the-job stressors like dual-worker families, responsibility of taking care of the children as well as addressing the concerns and medical issues of aged parents. This presents a unprecedented set of challenges for the growing number of sandwich generation Indians, who have to simultaneously take care of their elderly parents as well as young children. This presents a unprecedented set of challenges for the growing number of sandwich generation Indians, who have to simultaneously take care of their elderly parents as well as young children.

There is voluminous research evidence showing that work stress can lead to physical and psychological disorders that reduce job performance, impeded learning transfer, resistance to change, employee dissatisfaction, absenteeism, tardiness, turnover, counterproductive behaviors and accidents leading to an increase in the overall cost of the organization in medical expenses (e.g. Danna & Griffin, 1999; Quick et al., 1997; Quick & Tetrick, 2003; Schat, Kelloway & Desmarais, 2005, Spielberger et al., 2003). Hence, there is a financial and ethical impetus for the organizations to reduce strain.

The present study aims to contribute to the existing body of literature by examining the direct effect of work role stress on job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention in the Indian Organizations. The study further aims to investigate the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship between work role stress and two employee outcomes, i.e. organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intentions.

Objectives of the Study

  • To study the direct effect of work role stress on

    • o

      Job satisfaction (JS)

    • o

      Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)

    • o

      Turnover intentions (TI)

  • To examine the effect of job satisfaction on OCB and turnover intentions.

  • To investigate the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship between work role stress and the following employee outcomes

    • o

      Organizational citizenship behavior

    • o

      Turnover intentions

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