Yoga Therapy on Cognitive Function in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Yoga Therapy on Cognitive Function in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Artchoudane Soccalingam (Center for Yogic Sciences, Aarupadai Veedu Medical College and Hospital, India & Vinayaka Mission's Research Foundation, India), Meena Ramanathan (Centre for Yoga Therapy Education and Research, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, India) and Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani (Centre for Yoga Therapy Education and Research, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3069-6.ch009

Abstract

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are birth imperfections that cause dysfunction in cognitive and sensory processes and impairment in motor function, communication, and behavior. The major factors responsible for increasing incidence of NDDs are genetic, psychosocial, and excessive use of drugs. Yoga alleviates neurological problems and NDDs. Asana is a physical movement with breath awareness that facilitates the development of body awareness, concentration, and memory and provides vital energy for children with neurodevelopmental disability. Yoga therapy improves sensory coordination and motor imitations that enable persons with cognitive disabilities to make meaningful response by the integration of senses and functions of central nervous system.
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Significant Known Causes For Ndds

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurological disorder disruptive behavior characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity occurring more severely than typical for other individuals in the same stage of development (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Pastor and Reuben (2008) have reported that children with ADHD frequently have other states of neurological disorders, half of the children with ADHD have a learning disability and one fourth have a conduct disorder. Other disorders, including anxiety disorders, depression and cognitive impairments can be expressed with signs and symptoms that resemble those of ADHD.

Origin of Neurodevelopmental Disorder in Various Phases (Stromland, 1994)

  • 1.

    Preconception (from genetic)

    • a.

      period of dividing zygote, implantation and bilaminar embryo (up to 2 weeks);

    • b.

      common sites of action (also highly sensitive to teratogens; 3 to 7 weeks)

      • i.

        central nervous system and heart

      • ii.

        eye, heart, arm and leg

      • iii.

        ear and teeth

      • iv.

        palate

  • 2.

    Gestation (emotional health of mother and also less sensitive to teratogens from environment like thalidomide, diethylstilbestrol, ionizing radiation, methylmercury, lead; 8 to 38 wk)

    • i.

      Central nervous system

    • ii.

      Eyes

    • iii.

      External genitalia

    • iv.

      Ear, teeth and palate

    • v.

      Heart

    • vi.

      Arms and legs

  • 3.

    Postnatal (from second-hand tobacco smoke and lead)

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a generalized NDD characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. Mullin et al. (2013) suggested that an individual with NDD has genetically defective proteomes and defined NDD mechanisms at levels of complexity higher than the traditional single genes or proteins. However genetic defects are associated with one or multiple genotypes and the problems intrinsic to categorical NDD. Yasin et al. (2018) found that reduced effect of complex protein CHD8 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein), haplo insufficiency, or loss-of function mutations of CHD8 produce a distinct NDD, with a cognitive and behavioral profile beginning with developmental delay, progressing to CD and/or ASD, and with other neurofunctional features, such as anxiety. In NDDs, the genomic defects range from large chromosomal deletions 1q21.1, 16p11.2 and 22q11.2 to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus the large number of genes affected by these deletions of one or all that cause disorders with overlapping phenotypes like smaller genetic modifications, specifically SNPs in non-coding regions and this deletion syndrome closely associates with NDDs.

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