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What is Abduction

Encyclopedia of Data Science and Machine Learning
Reasoning to hypotheses.
Published in Chapter:
Abductive Strategies in Human Cognition and in Deep Learning Machines
Lorenzo Magnani (University of Pavia, Italy)
Copyright: © 2023 |Pages: 12
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-9220-5.ch046
Locked and unlocked strategies are at the center of this article as ways of shedding new light on the cognitive aspects of deep learning machines. The character and the role of these cognitive strategies, which are occurring both in humans and in computational machines, is indeed strictly related to the generation of cognitive outputs, which range from weak to strong level of knowledge creativity. The author maintains that these differences lead to important consequences when we analyze computational AI programs, such as AlphaGo, which aim at performing various kinds of abductive hypothetical reasoning. In these cases, the programs are characterized by locked abductive strategies: they deal with weak (even if sometimes amazing) kinds of hypothetical creative reasoning because they are limited in eco-cognitive openness, which instead qualifies human thinkers who are performing higher kinds of abductive creative reasoning, where cognitive strategies are instead unlocked.
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More Results
The Possibility of the Generation of Literary Works by Abduction
Abduction is an operation for adopting an explanatory hypothesis, which is subject to certain conditions, and that in pure abduction, there can never be justification for accepting the hypothesis other than through interrogation.
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Mixed Methods in Knowledge Management and Organisational Research
A means of inferencing which combines logic with insight, iterating between induction and deduction. This can support creative problem-solving and the capacity for new knowledge production.
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Building Theories-in-Practice on Social Innovation in Disability Nonprofit Organizations
An initial creative stage in scientific inquiry, where researchers begin with closely observed “surprising facts” driven by a vital yet poorly understood phenomenon, comparing these facts to the existing body of theoretical knowledge, and proposing new hypotheses that are empirically testable and practically explainable.
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An Evidence-Based Health Information System Theory
Is the process of adopting an explanatory hypothesis (CP 5.145) and covers two operations: the selection and the formation of plausible hypotheses. As process of finding premises, it is the basis of interpretive reconstruction of causes and intentions, as well as of inventive construction of theories.
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