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What is Commons

Business Models and Strategies for Open Source Projects
A shareable resource of nature or society that people choose to use or govern through self-organizing that is vulnerable to social dilemmas.
Published in Chapter:
Building Open Source Hardware Business Models
Laetitia Marie Thomas (Université Grenoble Alpes, France), Karine Evrard-Samuel (Université Grenoble Alpes, France), and Peter Troxler (Hogeschool Rotterdam, The Netherlands)
Copyright: © 2023 |Pages: 30
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-4785-7.ch003
Open source hardware (OSH) initiatives are collectively managed projects enabled by the internet and digital fabrication tools. They allow people to create products in a cheaper, faster, and more efficient manner. To date, there is no strategic and actionable framework using the commons theory for analyzing how these hardware initiatives develop economically effective and sustainable business models. Based on an analysis of the business models of 27 community-based and community-oriented OSH initiatives studied over a 3-year period, this chapter presents such a framework. The five-stages spiral framework offers to guide companies and startups involved in OSH to interact with their surrounding innovation ecosystems progressively, enrich their value propositions and grow in impact.
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Driving Innovation Ecosystem Transformation via Digital Platforms and Knowledge Co-Creation
Shared resources or assets, often held collectively by a community or group, where access, usage, and management are governed by agreed-upon rules to ensure sustainability and equitable distribution ( Hess and Ostrom, 2005 ; Ostrom, 1996; Marques, 2020 ).
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Preparing for the Virtual Workplace in the Educational Commons
A wide array of creations of nature and society that we inherit freely, share, and hold in trust for future generations ( Bollier, 2003 ).
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Knowledge in the Shrinking Commons: Libraries and Open Access in a Market-Driven World
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Peer Assessment for Development of Preservice Teachers
A virtual or conceptual space for sharing ideas about and supporting teaching and learning
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SoTL and Social Justice: Developing Forms of Curriculum Inquiry
Learning communities that establish a theoretical and practical space for the exchange of ideas, enliven classroom interactions and elevate the role of student/learner to co-producers of knowledge (Huber & Hutchins, 2005 AU79: The citation "Huber & Hutchins, 2005" matches multiple references. Please add letters (e.g. "Smith 2000a"), or additional authors to the citation, to uniquely match references and citations. ).
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Examining Patterns and Impacts of Forest Resource Extraction and Forest Degradation in Tropical Dry Forests
A common pool of resources, which are jointly owned and managed by a group of people or a community for their own use a recreation.
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