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What is Income Level

Handbook of Research on Driving Competitive Advantage through Sustainable, Lean, and Disruptive Innovation
According to the World Bank classification of world countries is measured by GNI per capita and varies for high income ($38,392), middle income ($4,690) and low income ($635) respectively. (See the World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2015 AU181: The in-text citation "World Development Indicators, 2015" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. : August 23, 2015: ).
Published in Chapter:
Characteristics of Innovation in the Arabic Countries
Samia Satti Osman Mohamed Nour (University of Khartoum, Sudan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0135-0.ch025
This chapter employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the definition of national systems of innovation used in the literature to examine the characteristics (strength and weakness) and implications of the national systems of innovation in the Arab countries. This paper examines three hypotheses, that the national systems of innovation exist but characterized by serious weaknesses in the Arab countries compared with other world countries, that the level of income has inconclusive effect in the performance of the national innovation systems in the Arab countries and that the poor Arab national systems of innovation has serious implications in the Arab countries. This paper explains two common characteristics of the national systems of innovation concerning poor subsystems of education, S&T, R&D, and ICT institutions in the Arab countries and concentration of R&D activities within public and universities sectors and small contribution of the private sector in R&D activities.
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The Effect of Income Level on E-Commerce Adoption: A Multigroup Analysis
Amount of money earned by people over a given period of time (typically, a month).
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