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What is Criterion-Referenced Assessments

Bilingual Special Education for the 21st Century: A New Interface
Refers to a process or test that evaluates the learning of students against a set of pre-specified qualities or criteria such as a set curriculum or some other grade level content standards, instead of comparing the students’ performance to the achievement of others done in Norm-referenced.
Published in Chapter:
The Role of a Multi-Tiered System of Support (MTSS) and the Special Education Referral Process for English Learners
Claudia Cuellar Rinaldi (Lasell University, USA) and Maria deLourdes Serpa (Lesley University, USA)
Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 38
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-9043-0.ch004
Multi-tiered system of support (MTSS2) is an instructional framework that supports bilingual English learners (B-ELs) with and without disabilities in both learning English as a second language and learning grade-level academic content. As populations change in the U.S. public schools and the achievement gap continues, the chapter presents how the MTSS2 framework is organized across tiers; the role of progress monitoring; and the cultural, linguistic, and research-based practices educators need to embed in the framework. MTSS2 also addresses inappropriate referrals of B-ELs for special education and related services. Recommendations include how to use research-based practices for B-ELs including culturally relevant practices, universal design for learning (UDL) principles, and English language support at each tier. The chapter ends with guidance on how MTSS2 can be used in the special education referral process for English learners with key recommendations that help disentangle language difference from language disability.
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