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What is Level of Developments (LOD)

Handbook of Research on Developing Smart Cities Based on Digital Twins
LOD defines the content and reliability of BIM objects at different stages of the project. By “content” means geometric information, structured data and related documentation. By “reliability” means for what uses and to what extent users downstream of the information can trust the accuracy and quality of that content.
Published in Chapter:
Exploiting BIM and Sensor Data Through Web-Based CAFM: The AR4FM Project
Umberto Di Staso (Territorium Online, Italy), Marco Piovano (Fraunhofer Italia Research, Italy), Ambra Barbini (Fraunhofer Italia Research, Italy), and Dominik T. Matt (Fraunhofer Italia Research, Italy & Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7091-3.ch016
Technological progress and the evolution of the directives concerning the construction sector have led to a significant digitalization of information concerning buildings. One of the challenges that have arisen concerns the use of data in the phases of the life cycle following the construction. How can this information be exploited? Is it possible to use it directly in a facility management tool that is within the reach of expert users and not? The aim of this chapter is reporting the developed framework to support the management and maintenance operations in buildings, defined within the project AR4FM - Augmented Reality for Facility Management. In particular, AR4FM aims to create an innovative software ecosystem that uses the most modern technologies to support facility management (FM) operations through a set of bespoke applications. The first tool is the web-based ICT platform usable through web-browser, while the second tool refers to a mobile App, called AR4FM mobile app, which will enable visualization for both mobile and wearable devices, such as smart-glasses.
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