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What is Frequency Components of HRV

Research Advancements in Smart Technology, Optimization, and Renewable Energy
Spectral analysis of short-term HRV reveals the presence of high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz) and low-frequency (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz) components. The HF component reflects respiratory fluctuation of heart rate and is mediated purely by the cardiac parasympathetic nerves, while LF component is mediated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. Long-term HRV also includes ultra-low frequency (ULF, <0.0033 Hz) and very-low frequency (VLF, 0.0033- 0.04 Hz) components in addition to LF and HF components. ULF and VLF components include heart rate fluctuations caused by many factors including body temperature regulation, renin-angiotensin system, and complex fractal fluctuations caused by brain activities.
Published in Chapter:
Prediction of Menstrual Cycle Phase by Wearable Heart Rate Sensor
Junichiro Hayano (Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Japan) and Emi Yuda (Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3970-5.ch001
The prediction of the menstrual cycle phase and fertility window by easily measurable bio-signals is an unmet need and such technological development will greatly contribute to women's QoL. Although many studies have reported differences in autonomic indices of heart rate variability (HRV) between follicular and luteal phases, they have not yet reached the level that can predict the menstrual cycle phases. The recent development of wearable sensors-enabled heart rate monitoring during daily life. The long-term heart rate data obtained by them carry plenty of information, and the information that can be extracted by conventional HRV analysis is only a limited part of it. This chapter introduces comprehensive analyses of long-term heart rate data that may be useful for revealing their associations with the menstrual cycle phase.
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