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What is Infrastructure

Handbook of Research on Economic, Financial, and Industrial Impacts on Infrastructure Development
Structures, systems, and facilities serving the economy of a business, industry, country, city, town, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. It is typically a term to characterize the existence or condition of costly 'technical structures' such as roads, bridges, tunnels, or other constructed facilities such as loading docks, cold storage chambers, electrical capacity, fuel tanks, cranes, overhead clearances, or components of water supplies, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth. Infrastructure thus consists of improvements with significant cost to develop or install that return an important value over time. Infrastructure can be defined as “the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions.” The word infrastructure has been used in English since at least 1887 and in French since at least 1875, originally meaning “The installations that form the basis for any operation or system”.
Published in Chapter:
Infrastructure and Tourism Development: A Panel Data Analysis
Sourav Kumar Das (Vidyasagar University, India) and Tonmoy Chatterjee (Ananda Chandra College, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2361-1.ch011
Abstract
Infrastructure is not the engine but the wheels of economic development. Since the onset of economic crisis, followed by economic reforms, the importance of infrastructure development has been emphasised through policy, pronouncements, higher budgetary allocation of funds, formation of Infrastructure development, etc. It opens out a region by providing an access to its tourist places. In its absence, the resource potential for tourism can't be of any benefit. In addition to the common infrastructure tourism development requires special infrastructures, which is growing importance to India and foreign tourists in recent years. This chapter tries to investigate the significance of infrastructure as a factor in tourism development by applying panel data estimation techniques upon 27 Indian States for the period 2005-2015 and finds that the infrastructure has been contributing positively to tourist arrivals, particularly from India and abroad. Apart from this we have also shown that tourist arrivals from host along with infrastructure expenditure will affect Indian tourism in a positive manner.
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Improving Broadband Access in Rural Areas
A “set of interconnected structural elements that provide the framework for supporting the entire structure. It usually applies only to structures that are artificial” (Wikipedia, 2006). An infrastructure may be viewed as a network that connects an integrated and heterogeneous set of components—such as equipment, systems, applications, processes, and people—while at the same time these components form rather stable structures with certain inertia. Infrastructures are often taken for granted; their existence is only noticed when a segment breaks down, for example, during a power outage. There are many types of infrastructures:
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Research-Based Best Practices for Online Programs: A Dual Administrative- and Instruction-Based Model
any support mechanisms in place that facilitate the delivery of online instruction including, but not limited to, network/communications software and hardware, helpdesk and other technical support functions for both faculty and students, training and professional development opportunities, etc.
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Optimizing OERs for Optimal ICT Literacy in Higher Education
The technological system to support telecommunications (e.g., facilities, cables, equipment, services, etc.).
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Integrating Technology for Effective Adult Education
It refers to the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization.
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A Reflection on E-Collaboration Infrastructure for Research Communities
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An Academic Guidance Model to Orient Distance Students
It is the “strong” element of the organization, composed by the hardware and software of the communication, the net of physical and communicational contacts between members.
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Faculty Support Systems
An internal supportive framework. Among other things, infrastructure can refer to the computer networking technology found in an organization.
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Investigating the Economic Vulnerability Factors of Emerging Markets After the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 With a Hybrid Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach
It is the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g. buildings, roads, power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise or an economy. Sometimes it is considered as engine of growth.
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Telecommunications Policy in Nigeria
The hardware and software developed and maintained to keep a communication system operating smoothly.
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New Urban Layers and Spaces: Infrastructures, Experiences, and Interactions
Structural and functional elements that contribute to the day-to-day working of a city, including human and digital components and dimensions.
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Infrastructural Development: An Engine of Growth – An Empirical Study in SAARC Countries
Infrastructure has two different lines of implication. In other words, infrastructure may be interpreted as soft infrastructure and hard infrastructure. Physical infrastructure such as road, rail `lines, telephone and internet lines etc. which belong to the category of hard infrastructure may be measured by physical units of output. Human infrastructure such as efficient labour, knowledge creation, the way of governing a public and corporate system, political application of good technology etc. fall under the category of soft infrastructure.
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The Impact of Infrastructure on Growth in Developing Countries: Dynamic Panel Data Analysis
The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g. buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. According to World Bank, there are four broad categories of infrastructure: transportation, telecommunication, power (or energy) and water and sanitation.
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Quality Distance Learning Programs and Processes
The often unseen network of services provided within the institution that supports the daily operations. In this case, the distance teaching and learning infrastructure includes people working behind the scenes that support students, albeit in an invisible fashion. For example, the registrar’s office, the office of student finances, the financial aid office, information technology system specialists, as well as distance learning administrators, deans and department chairs.
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Factors Affecting the Adoption of E-Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Is the set of facilities and systems that serve a country. It is a key factor in adopting any new technology.
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Belt and Road Initiative: The Case of Malaysia
The fundamental physical facilities and organizational system that needed for the operations of a society.
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What Constitutes a Smart City?
Infrastructure refers to a set of interconnected structural and organizational elements (physical-physical, service-service and service-physical) that provide the framework to support an economy. There are two types of infrastructure - physical (examples: Buildings, Roads, Utilities) and services (examples: education, and healthcare).
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Nonprofits
The business's hard items, technology systems, and processes utilized to conduct the mission objectives.
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Impacts of Economic and Institutional Dynamics on New Media Applications Penetration: Sample Country Analysis
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Digital Libraries Overview and Globalization
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Reducing Transaction Costs with GLW Infrastructure
As in an information infrastructure, which, in the words of Hanseth (2002) , is “a shared, evolving, open, standardized, and heterogeneous installed base.”
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Foreign Direct Investment Opportunities in Infrastructure Development: A Study on India
basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g. buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
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Infrastructure Governance at Sub-National Level: The Case of Kampala City in Uganda
The technical and social aspects of designing, installation, and maintenance of transport, sanitation, water, recreation, and other urban facilities.
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Do the Belt and Road Initiative and Chinese Investments Promote Moroccan FDI in African Countries?: An Empirical Investigation Using Panel Data
A set of technical and economic equipment that supports creating added value. it could be physical (road, railroad, airports, ports), energetic (electricity and fuel cost and supply), and soft (information and communication technologies).
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The Impact of Infrastructure on Growth and Development: The Case of Ghana, 1986-2016
It is defined as physical and organizational structures for running a country. These include structural elements such as roads, power, telecommunications, schools, hospitals, water supply and waste management which facilitate production and distribution of goods and services and enable a country’s development ( Bhattacharya, 2012 , pp. 14-15).
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The Role and Integration of Digital Libraries in E-Learning
In Information Technology, it refers to the underlying foundation or framework of a computer system, including but not limited to the hardware, software, and network.
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Rural Tourism: A South African Township Perspective
Basic physical systems such as communication, transportation, water, sewage and electric systems needed for basic economic development.
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Infrastructures of Knowledge Sharing Countrywide
The fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools. Infrastructure is the basic physical and organizational structure needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. It can be generally defined as the set of interconnected structural elements that provide a framework supporting an entire structure of development. It is an important term for judging a country or region's development.
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Regional Trade and Green Innovation Development Under the NAFTA: Territory Democratization and Institutional Design
A set of technical means, services and facilities necessary for the development of an activity or for a place to be used.
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Concepts and Architectures for Mobile Context-Aware Applications
System that comprises common resources and services such that it forms a shared basis for other and otherwise independent systems (including applications).
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Technologies and Services in Support of Virtual Workplaces
Shared technology components that support deployment of business application systems and virtual work systems.
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SME Sustainability and Growth in Emerging Markets
Refers to transport, communications, power generation, water supply, sanitation facilities, educational and health-care facilities. It is understood that the absence of these does not bode well for any economy. In fact, it is argued that the reason why there is no visible economic growth in some emerging economies and developing ones is because of the stark absence of these infrastructures. In the developing countries, funding constraints has necessitated the collaboration of the government with the private sector to finance infrastructure development for its growing population.
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Intelligent Cities: A Compendious and Multidisciplinary Approach – Issues and Opportunities
This refers to buildings, roads, rail, and other concrete structures that work together to aid in business transactions or other functional systems.
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India's Race to the Top: An Analysis of Stability of Indian Infra-Stocks
According to Merriam Webster dictionary, infrastructure can be defined as “the basic equipment and structures (such as roads and bridges) that are needed for a country, region, or organization to function properly”.
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Evaluating the Future Possibilities of India-ASEAN Economic Relations: A Critical Assessment
It is the Basic Organizational and Physical facilities and structures (e.g. roads, hospitals, ICT, library, railways, buildings, power supplies) needed and required for the operation of an enterprise or society. It is a set of fundamental or basics systems and facilities which supports the sustainable functionality of firms and households.
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What's Missing From the College Transcript?: How Employers Make Sense of Student Skills
The social practices and technical components of large-scale systems that support the coordination and performance of work.
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Nation Building through Andragogy and Lifelong Learning: On the Cutting Edge Educationally, Economically, and Governmentally
Base, foundation, supporting structure, underpinning, framework, physical scaffolding, backdrop, elements which give context for life within a community.
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Value, Visibility, Virtual Teamwork at Kairos
Infrastructure includes both the material support systems that make virtual work possible (such as computers and computer networks) and the embedded practices of communication that have been established within a particular community of workers. Star and Ruhleder (1996) argue that infrastructure is transparent to use, but becomes visible when it breaks down and is linked with conventions of practice (p. 113).
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Trend, Growth, and Problems of Road Transport in India
The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g. buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
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Investigating Mega Project Schedule Challenges in Transnet Capital Projects
In a broad context infrastructure relates to the systems and structures that surround a city. Town or area of a country, commonly known as roads, power supply, rail, airports or harbours to name but a few.
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Integrating ICT into Sustainable Local Policies
Basic services necessary for development to take place (roads, electricity, water, education, health facilities, communications, etc.).
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Application Service Provision for Intelligent Enterprises
An emerging class of companies have opted to approach the ASP market by providing infrastructure management and outsourcing services to ASPs, freeing up their resources to focus more directly on application management issues (telco, data centre, networking).
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Beyond Textbooks: Sources of Good Virtual Training
The technological system to support telecommunications (e.g., facilities, cables, equipment, services, etc.).
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The Effects of COVID-19 and Disasters on Scheduling Function in Mega-Projects
Refers to roads, power-supply, harbours to name but a few that sustains the economic viability and growth of a country.
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Interplays Among Railway Investment, Revenue, and GDP in India: An Empirical Study
It constitutes the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g. buildings, roads, power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
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Education for Women and Girls in Iraq
The basic systems and services, such as transportation and power supplies, that a country or organization uses in order to work effectively.
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Selecting Open Source Software for Use in Schools
The structural components that together contribute to a full structure or organization. The term infrastructure often is used to refer to the physical elements of an entity such as a school but also refers to an information technology infrastructure that includes the hardware and software to create the system or structure.
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Implementing DWDM Lambda-Grids
Network platform that supports research, production applications, and experimentation.
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Virtual Private Networks
The foundation or permanent installation necessary for a structure or system to operate.
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ICT Literacy Integration: Issues and Sample Efforts
The technological system to support telecommunications (e.g., facilities, cables, equipment, services, etc.).
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Weakness of Modern Hospitals
System composed by many interoperable elements, geographically dispersed, able to supply generalist products (that have to be specialized by the end-user) to an unforeseen set of users, difficult to identify and to estimate.
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Lesotho, a Tourism Destination: An Analysis of Lesotho's Current Tourism Products and Potential for Growth
Basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g. buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
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Innovative Techniques Used in Zimbabwean Schools to Educate Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic
The facilities necessary for a school to function smoothly. These comprise of physical and well as technology-based.
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