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What is Intelligent Computing System

Alternative Pain Management: Solutions for Avoiding Prescription Drug Overuse
Is a computer system that aims to provide immediate and customized instruction or feedback to learners, usually without intervention from a human teacher. These are used in the medical planning, diagnosis and treatment.
Published in Chapter:
Pain Assessment through Facial Expression
Sanjay Kumar Singh (Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), India), V. Rastogi (Institute of Medical Sciences (BHU), India), and S. K. Singh (Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1680-5.ch002
Pain, assumed to be the fifth vital sign, is an important symptom that needs to be adequately assessed in heath care. The visual changes reflected on the face of a person in pain may be apparent for only a few seconds and occur instinctively. Tracking these changes is a difficult and time-consuming process in a clinical setting. This is why it is motivating researchers and experts from medical, psychology and computer fields to conduct inter-disciplinary research in capturing facial expressions. This chapter contains a comprehensive review of technologies in the study of facial expression along with its application in pain assessment. The facial expressions of pain in children's (0-2 years) and in non-communicative patients need to be recognized as they are of utmost importance for proper diagnosis. Well designed computerized methodologies would streamline the process of patient assessment, increasing its accessibility to physicians and improving quality of care.
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