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What is Interoperability

Handbook of Research on ICTs for Human-Centered Healthcare and Social Care Services
Property referring to the ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (inter-operate); the ability of two or more systems to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged (in other words ability to understand the semantic content of the exchanged information).
Published in Chapter:
Interoperability of Medical Devices and Information Systems
Lenka Lhotska (Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic), Miroslav Bursa (Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic), Michal Huptych (Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic), Vaclav Chudacek (Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic), and Jan Havlik (Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-3986-7.ch039
Abstract
Information and communication technologies have already become an inseparable part of healthcare sector activities. In the chapter, the authors discuss the issues of standardization and interoperability that are crucial for correct interconnection of medical and other devices and information systems. Their previous work in the area has led to the conclusion that successful integration of partial solutions is strongly dependent on the issue of interoperability of medical devices and information systems. It comprises problems of standardization of data acquisition, communication, processing, and storage, and the connected problem: correct data mapping between different ICT applications. They present several examples of partial solutions of communication and data format definition in dedicated areas.
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Support Interoperability and Reusability of Emerging Forms of Assessment Using IMS LD and IMS QTI
The ability to take instructional components (e.g., an activity or a question) developed in one system and to use them in another system without special effort.
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Towards Supporting Interoperability in e-Invoicing Based on Semantic Web Technologies
The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.
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An IoMT Architecture for Patient Rehabilitation Based on Low-Cost Hardware and Interoperability Standards
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Process Management Methodology
The ability of two or more organizations or systems to be engaged in the process of ensuring that the organizations or systems exchange information and re-use the information, internally or externally.
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Interoperability Issues for Systems Managing Competency Information: A Preliminary Study
Ability of two or more IT Systems to exchange information and to make mutual use of the information that has been exchanged.
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Ubiquitous Computing and Communication for Product Monitoring
The ability of two or more systems, subsystems, products, or applications to work together and/or share information or inputs and outputs.
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Networked Experiments in Global E-Science
Possibility of performing computation in a distributed heterogeneous environment without altering the technological and specification structure at each involved node.
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E-Health, Local Governance, and Public-Private Partnering in Ontario
It is the ability of different information and computer systems to exchange data and enable communication and coordination across different organizations or subsystems within an organization in order to be participative in shared governance systems.
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The US National Building Information Modeling Standard
There are many designs and components authored, viewed, and analyzed during the life of a facility. Interoperability means that each item authored could be viewed, analyzed, and edited in multiple software platforms, even those from different software vendors. The watershed study for interoperability is the 2004 study by the National Institute of Standards and Technology stating that the lack of interoperability cost the facilities industry an estimated $15.8 Billion a year.
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Comparison of Technologies and Methodologies in the E-Learning EXPO Experience
This term derives from the field of engineering and refers to the capacity of a technology or a tool to work in synergy with other technological systems, thereby obtaining additional services and possibilities. The various methods by means of which access may be gained to the Internet (from cell phone to computer) are examples of interoperability, fruit of the tendency to concentrate onto extremely advanced technologies a wide range of services and tools. The term interoperability has recently characterised the debate on Learning Objects (LO) where interoperability becomes the point of focus so that LOs created in different contexts can be re-used in a variety of ways and allow tracking of the student’s learning path. Interoperability is linked to the use of protocols, one of the most important being SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model), a dossier of technical specifications which enable, among other things, the exchange of e-learning contents independently of the platform.
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Enabling Multilingual Social Interactions and Fostering Language Learning in Virtual Worlds
Interoperability is the ability of two or more applications or components to exchange information together. Thus, interoperable applications and components may be connected together or be able to read the same data formats. Standardization leads to a greater interoperability of applications and components.
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Interoperability and Constituents of Interoperable Systems in Public Sector
The ability of people, organizations and business process and disparate information and communications systems to interact, interconnect and work together to deliver services and information in a seamless, uniform and efficient manner across multiple organizations and systems.
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Improving Access to Government Information with Open Standards for Document Formats
In the context of information technology, interoperability is the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.
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Ontology Alignment Overview
A state or situation through which heterogeneous systems can exchange data and/or processes.
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Selecting Open Source Software for Use in Schools
The ability of products (in this case, software) to work together seamlessly.
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Ontologies for Education and Learning Design
Capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among various functional units in a manner that requires the user to have little or no knowledge of the unique characteristics of those units.
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Model for Identifying Competencies and Learning Outcomes (MICRA)
The ability of a system or a product, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other systems or products without any restricted access or implementation and without special effort on the part of the user.
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Institutional Isomorphism and New Technologies
Ability of ICT systems and business processes to exchange data and enable the sharing of information and knowledge
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Methods and Tools for Online Objective Testing
(among software systems): the capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among various functional units in a manner that requires the user to have little or no knowledge of the unique characteristics of those units. (ISO/IEC 2382-01).
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Interactive Virtual Participation for Opera and Theatre Using New Digitization Information Systems
Is a process in which the three-dimensional and alphanumeric restitution is reproduced digitally. Once the characteristics of digital modelling have been defined, it is possible to define data exchange formats and procedures.
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The DIM Approach for Digital Twin
It is defined as the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.
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Knowledge Management in Collaborative Business Networks
Is the ability of information systems belonging to collaborative business network members to work together and understand each other.
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Standardization in Learning Technology
The capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among various functional units in a manner that requires the user to have little or no knowledge of the unique characteristics of those units.
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Myths and Challenges of Building an Effective Digital Library in Developing Nations: An African Perspective
Ability of a software or computer set-up to run and interact with other computers software across local or wide-area networks with the purpose of accessing or using the resources across the multiple system set-up.
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Use of OSS by Local E-Administration: The French Situation
Ability for different computer systems at different administrative levels of government and in different regions to exchange information effectively.
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Emerging Platform Education: What Are the Implications of Education Processes' Digitization?
Characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces work with other products or systems, without any restrictions.
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Standards in Asynchronous E-Learning Systems
Ability of e-learning systems to exchange data and resources transparently to the user.
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The Geospatial Semantic Web: What are its Implications for Geospatial Information Users?
Is the ability for a system or components of a system to provide information portability and interapplication cooperative process control. This means software components operating reciprocally to overcome tedious batch conversion tasks, import/export obstacles, and distributed resource access barriers imposed by heterogeneous processing environments and heterogeneous data.
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A Comparative Analysis of 2D Computer-Aided Estimating (CAE) and BIM Estimating Procedures
Interoperability is the ability of different information technology systems and software applications to communicate, to exchange data accurately, effectively, and consistently, and to use the information that has been exchanged.
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Connected BIM Models Towards Industry 4.0
Is defined as the skill of several interrelated systems to communicate information for increased understanding of the element and to use this data for future scenarios.
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Integration Issues in the Healthcare Supply Chain
The ability of diverse information systems to work together and interact in an integrated way.
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Improving the Integration of Distributed Applications
Asymmetric property between a client C and a server S that holds if C is compliant with the set of requests allowed by S and S is conformant with the set of responses expected by C .
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Improving Application Integration by Combining Services and Resources
Asymmetric property between a consumer C and a provider P ( C is compatible with P ) that holds if C is compliant with P .
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ScaleSem Approach to Check and to Query Semantic Graphs
The ability of heterogeneous software and hardware to communicate and share information.
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Towards the Integration of Trajectory Information Sources for Semantic Conflicts Detection Purpose: A Trajectory Ontology Based Approach
It is a property of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, present or future, without any restricted access or implementation.
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E-Government in Syria: Obstacles and Interoperability Framework
ICTs gadgets regardless of the manufacturer are able to run applications from all other hardware and software platforms in a system.
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Cloud-Based Application Integration in Virtual Enterprises
Asymmetric property between a consumer C and a provider P ( C is compatible with P ) that holds if C is compliant with P .
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An Ontological Business Process Modeling Approach for Public Administration: The Case of Human Resource Management
The ability of information and communication technology (ICT) systems and of the business processes they support to exchange data and to enable sharing of information and knowledge.
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The Next-Generation CBE Architecture: A Learning-Centric Standards-Based Approach
The ability of a CBE environment to easily take and share data with software applications.
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Ecosystems in Precision Medicine: The Need for Good Governance
The degree that defined data is understood and used by multiple and different entities who read it.
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Blockchain for Healthcare and Medical Systems
The ability of various information technology systems and software applications to communicate and share data correctly, efficiently, and reliably
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Challenges for Adoption of e-Procurement: An SME Perspective
The ability of disparate and diverse organisations to interact towards mutually beneficial and agreed common goals, involving the sharing of information and knowledge between the organisations, through the business processes they support, by means of the exchange of data between their respective ICT systems
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Societal and Economical Impact on Citizens through Innovations Using Open Government Data: Indian Initiative on Open Government Data
Interoperability is the ability of different information technology systems and software applications to communicate, exchange data, and use the information that has been exchanged.
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Next Generation Mobile Multimedia
Mechanisms used to overcome heterogeneity. Devices can be made to interoperate and internetwork using agreed upon standards that govern how elements or parts contained within the device are used. This ensures that devices can connect to each other and interoperate in a standardised way.
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Interorganizational Communications in Disaster Management
Refers to the ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (inter-operate). The term is often used to refer to a technical property in an engineering sense, or alternatively in a broad sense, taking into account social, political, and organizational factors that impact system performance. Interoperability of an ICT in disaster management refers to the capability of the ICT to work with different ICTs used by various DMOs, which may involve supports for common radio frequency spectrum, communication protocols, information/message formats, etc.
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IT-Standards and Standardization Approaches in Healthcare
Denotes the ability of different, independent, and heterogeneous information systems to exchange electronic data for their further processing.
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Data Mining in Public Administration
This is the ability of a computer system and/or data to work with other systems using common standards.
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Geospatial Semantic Web: Critical Issues
Capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among various functional units in a manner that requires the user to have little or no knowledge of the unique characteristics of those units [ISO 2382-1].
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The Library as Lifeboat
The expectation that many agencies with varied purposes will share resources in a cooperative manner in response to an emergency situation.
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Biometric Data in the EU (Reformed) Data Protection Framework and Border Management: A Step Forward or an Unsatisfactory Move?
Interoperability refers to the functionality of (large-scale) information systems to exchange data and to enable the sharing of information. In the context of border control, the goal of the EU is to improve its data management architecture by ensuring that border guards, customs authorities, police officers and judicial authorities have the necessary information at their disposal to perform their functions, by overcoming structural shortcomings that impede their work ( European Data Protection Supervisor, 2018 ). Biometric data are a key enabler of interoperability because they are seen as a much more reliable means to identify a person than alphanumeric data (i.e. “data represented by letters, digits, special characters, spaces and punctuation mark”).
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Big Data, Semantics, and Policy-Making: How Can Data Dynamics Lead to Wiser Governance?
To ensure cross-domain sharing of knowledge patterns by translating big data stores into knowledge bases using ontologies.
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Public Sector Participation in Open Communities
The ability for machines to exchange data without the intervention of human agents.
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Intelligent Cities: A Compendious and Multidisciplinary Approach – Issues and Opportunities
It is the ability of electronic smart devices to communicate with each other in a seamless manner to perform operations to achieve common objectives.
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Blockchain in Gaming
Blockchain interoperability is not a set rule book. It refers to a broad range of techniques that allow different blockchains to listen to each other, transfer digital assets and data between one another and enable better collaboration.
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Teaching and Learning with Mobile Technologies
Ability to work together, sharing information, capabilities, or other specific goals while being different at some technological level.
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Digitally-Enabled Design Management
Automated data exchange and transfer capability without the need for the manual processing of that data ( Azhar et al., 2012 ).
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Networked Appliances and Home Networking: Internetworking the Home
Mechanisms used to overcome heterogeneity. Devices can be made to interoperate and internetwork using agreed upon standards that govern how elements or parts contained within the device are used. This ensures that devices can connect to each other and interoperate in a standardised way.
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Overview and Analysis of Electronic Health Record Standards
Interoperability is the ability of information and communication systems and business processes to support data flow and to enable the exchange of information and knowledge. Interoperability must be secured at the technical (norms and standards for linking computer systems and services), semantic (meaning of data) and process levels (defining business aims, modelling business processes and actualizing cooperation between various management units). Interoperability can be achieved by adopting national and international technical norms.
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Digital Libraries Overview and Globalization
The ability of different vendor devices to transmit data and exchange information, while having the total capability to process and act upon such information independently. This relies heavily on international standards.
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Digital Professionalism: Challenges and Opportunities to Healthcare Professions
Is a way to communicate and data sharing through software to exchange and make use of information by different organizations, it allows to work in conjunction with each other.
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A Primer on Gamification Standardization
Is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.
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Lowering Coupling in Distributed Applications With Compliance and Conformance
Asymmetric property between a client C and a server S that holds if C is compliant with the set of requests allowed by S and S is conformant with the set of responses expected by C .
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Frameworks for Distributed Interoperability
The ability of a consumer C to be partially or fully compatible with a provider P . By composition, it can also refer to multilateral compatibility between several systems, interacting in the context of some choreography.
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A Study of Quality Tools and Techniques for Smart Manufacturing in Industry 4.0 in Malaysia: The Case of Northern Corridor Economic Region
A characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.
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Do Current Standards Support Adaptive Sequencing Interoperability?
The capacity of using the same material on different platforms or systems.
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Requirements on System Design to Increase Understanding and Visibility of Cultural Heritage
The capability of transferring knowledge between heterogeneous elements of a physical space like users, devices, objects and environments.
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Issues and Aspects of Open Source Software Usage and Adoption in the Public Sector
Means the ability of systems to operate effectively together independently of different software or hardware vendors.
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Smart Government: Opportunities and Challenges in Smart Cities Development
The ability to exchange and use information, allowing systems and organizations to work together.
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PolyOrBAC: An Access Control Model for Inter-Organizational Web Services
is the ability of products, systems, or business processes to work together to accomplish a common task.
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An Overview of E-Government 3.0 Implementation
Is the ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together by exchanging information without technical or organizational restrictions that can be achieved by applying standardized procedures and interfaces.
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Comprehensive Learner Record as a Vehicle for Assessment and Learning Transparency in a Skills Economy
Refers to the basic ability of software or systems to connect and communicate with one another, despite being disparate technology. Being able to exchange information between applications, databases, and other platforms help support educational institutions, employer databases and other systems share information.
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Laying the Foundation for a Micro-Credential Strategy: Lessons Learned
The transferability of one mode of learning to another in a manner that is student centric and maintains its value in credits awarded (e.g., competency-based degree to traditional degree to micro-credential).
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Right to Correct Information in the Cyber World
It is the ability of a product or system with well-understood interfaces to function with other products or systems, now or in the future, in terms of implementation or access, without limitations.
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Enterprise Integration With the Structural Services Architectural Style
Asymmetric property between a consumer C and a provider P ( C is compatible with P ) that holds if C is compliant with P and P is conformant to C .
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Improving Application Decoupling in Virtual Enterprise Integration
Asymmetric property between a consumer C and a provider P ( C is compatible with P ) that holds if C is compliant with P .
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Enhancing Digital Repositories with Learning Object Metadata
The ability of diverse systems and applications to co-operate (inter-operate).
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Leveraging Big Data Analytics in the Healthcare Sector: A Look at Applications and Challenges
This refers to the ability to make systems and organizations work together without any special effort by the user.
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Semantic Mapping between LOM – SCORM Content Package and MPEG-7 Concepts
The ability to exchange and use information among computer systems of different types, designed and produced by a different vendor.
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mHealth Environments for Chronic Disease Management
The ability of health information systems to interact within and across organizational boundaries in order to advance the effective delivery of healthcare services for individuals and communities, while standards define the entities and their interactions.
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BIM and Geospatial Information Systems
Process of enabling different data formats to interoperate together and reduce the number of formast required within a workflow.
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Open Source Software Use in Local Governments
The ability of computer systems, software, and organizations to function together to provide a set of services.
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Clinical Engineering
Interoperability of medical devices and systems allowing them to communicate with each other with minimal effort in addition to sending their data to the electronic health record.
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Educational Technology Standards in Focus
Interoperability is the concept of enabling heterogeneous software and hardware environments to share learning material. The base level learning material is the learning object; standards and Learning Object metadata play a significant role in enabling interoperability.
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Creative Leadership: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Creativity
The ability of computer systems or software to exchange and make use of information.
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Interoperability: Standards for Learning Objects in Science Education
LO ability to promote integration into different systems and to allow efficient exchange and use of information. It requires the adoption of appropriate standards and adequate metadata, both from the technical, and from the pedagogical or educational point of view.
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Exploiting BIM and Sensor Data Through Web-Based CAFM: The AR4FM Project
Interoperability is the possibility to exchange data between different software platforms, not only during the construction phase of the work but also throughout its entire life cycle, from maintenance to decommissioning.
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Challenges and Trends in Home Automation: Addressing the Interoperability Problem With the Open-Source Platform OpenHAB
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RehaInteract: 3D Kinesitherapy for Domestic Environments
Interoperability allows actors in distributed systems to work together by providing a common understanding of the exchanged information. The general definition not only applies to information in the sense of data. It also includes components (e.g. devices) that can be integrated among different actors or replaced.
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Semantic Representation of Accurate Surveys for the Cultural Heritage: BIM Applied to the Existing Domain
Term used to describe the ability to translate program data from one platform to another across and within different software tools.
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Unifying Services and Resources: A Unified Architectural Style for Integrations
An asymmetric property between a consumer C and a provider P ( C is compatible with P ) that holds if C is compliant with P and P is conformant to C .
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Leveraging the Power of the Grid with Opal
The capability of two or more software components to interact exchanging information.
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Using Simulation Systems for Decision Support
contends with the software and implementation details of interoperations; this includes exchange of data elements via interfaces, the use of middleware, and mapping to common information exchange models. If two systems are integrated and the receiving system can not only decode but understand the data in a way that is meaningful to the receiving system, the systems are interoperable.
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USGS Digital Libraries for Coastal and Marine Science
The ability of different information systems to exchange resources through shared standards.
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Maturity Models in Healthcare IS/IT Investments: Challenges and Trends
Is a feature of IT that refers to the capacity and existence of diverse elements, health provider nodes, of the health care system to exchange and act upon shared information.
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Interoperability Issues of Business Processes: Key Issues and Technological Drivers
An attribute given to systems, applications and data that assigns their ability to communicate with another systems, applications and data in a manner that they may exchange and mutually use that data.
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Automated Testing: Higher Efficiency and Improved Quality of Testing Command, Control and Signaling Systems by Automation
Subsystems provided by different manufacturers are working together in the intended operational manner.
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Rule-Based Domain-Specific Modeling for E-Government Service Transactions
Ability of ICT systems and of the business processes they support to exchange data and to enable sharing of information and knowledge.
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Research Information Management Systems: A Comparative Study
Refers to the essential ability of computerized systems to connect and readily communicate with each other, even if different manufacturers developed them in various industries.
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Edge-of-Things Computing-Based Smart Healthcare System
Is the ability to exchange data and use the information across devices, systems, applications, or system components.
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The Role of Compliance and Conformance in Software Engineering
A kind of compatibility in which compliance and conformance are assessed by exchanging messages between consumer and provider, during the Operation stage of their lifecycles (although they need to be designed in prior stages of the lifecycle).
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Semantic Web in E-Government
The ability of several software components based on different platforms to interact, exchange services and cooperate in solving complex tasks. ISO TC204 defines interoperability as “ the ability of systems to provide services to and accept services from other systems and to use the services so exchanged to enabled them to operate effectively together.”
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Enterprise Interoperability
An attribute given to systems, applications and data that assigns their ability to communicate with another systems, applications and data in a manner that they may exchange and mutually use that data.
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Blockchain Integration Into Supply Chain Operations: An Analysis With Case Studies
Interoperability is the degree of communication between two or more systems. When interoperability between systems is high, then they can communicate, share data, and use each other’s functionalities. When the interoperability is low between systems then additional effort is required to translate one system's data types and communication protocols to the other, if possible.
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Building Information Modeling in the Australian Architecture Engineering and Construction Industry
A term to be used to describe the ability of various individuals or organizations to interact and work together so that a common goal can be (better) achieved. Under the technology context, it can be defined as the degree to which diverse systems or components are able to exchange information and make most of the exchanged information. This concept has been promoted by a number of organizations such as Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
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Interoperability Frameworks for Distributed Systems
The ability of a consumer C to be partially or fully compatible with a provider P . By composition, it can also refer to multilateral compatibility between several systems, interacting in the context of some choreography.
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ICT Exacerbates the Human Side of the Digital Divide
Hardware and software devised to help people exchange information ensuring computer systems can to talk to each other, interpret data, and exchange information.
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Analyzing the Security Susceptibilities of Biometrics Integrated with Cloud Computing
Interoperability relates to the interaction between systems and their ability to exchange and use information. For instance, multiple software applications used on two different physical machines from a different vendor should be able to receive and understand each other’s data in an efficient manner.
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Fundamental Building Blocks for Security Interoperability in e-Business
is a property referring to the ability of different systems to work together (e.g. the ability of systems or components to exchange the data and provide services to and accept services from other systems).
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Enhancing the Efficiency of ICT by Spatial Data Interoperability
The ability of systems, units, or forces to provide data, information, material, and services and accept the same from other systems, units, or forces, and to use the data, information, material, and services exchanged in a way to enable them to operate effectively together.
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Guidelines for Developing Digital Cultural Collections
The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the exchanged information without special effort on either system.
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Cybersecurity in Europe: Digital Identification, Authentication, and Trust Services
The ability of computer systems to exchange and make use of data or information. Means the possibility for spatial data sets to be combined, and for services to interact, without repetitive manual intervention, in such a way that the result is coherent and the added value of the data sets and services is enhanced.
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GAFRHE: A Gamification Framework for Healthcare
the ability of computer systems to connect and exchange information with one another.
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The Emergence of Cloud Portfolio in Higher Education
Interoperability is the ability of a system or a product to work with other systems or products without special effort on the part of the customer.
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Evaluating Large-Scale European LO Production, Distribution, and Use
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Interoperability between Distributed Systems and Web-Services Composition
The ability of heterogeneous software and hardware to communicate and share information.
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Mediation and Ontology-Based Framework for Interoperability
The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.
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Non-Cognitive Signals and Systems: The Science and Technology of Connectedness
The ability of computer systems or software to exchange and make use of information translating to human access across contexts, divisions, or disciplines.
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Drawing, Information, and Design: Tools and Perspective for Conservation
This is the capability of different ICT systems to cooperate and share information between each other in a reliable and effective way. The aim of interoperability is to facilitate interaction as well as information sharing and use within heterogeneous information systems.
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Electronic Health Record Portals Definition and Usage
The ability to exchange information between systems.
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Interoperability of ERP Software
The ability of an ERP to serve more than one function.
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Software Components
The ability of systems and components to interact with other systems and components, which are generally implemented on or for heterogeneous platforms. The focus is usually kept on information exchange between interacting systems.
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DL and GIS: Path to a New Collaboration Paradigm
A condition that exists when the distinctions between information systems are not a barrier to accomplishing a task that spans multiple systems.
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Supporting Data-Intensive Analysis Processes: A Review of Enabling Technologies and Trends
Interoperability refers to the ability of different software components to communicate and cooperate with one another, by resolving differences in language, execution platform, interface definition, and in the meaning of what has been communicated.
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Characteristics and Technologies of Advanced CNC Systems
The ability of two or more computer systems to exchange information with no barriers and make use of it transparently.
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Best Practices for Effective Virtual Teams
According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary, interoperability is “the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.” Enterprise systems and applications need to be interoperable to achieve seamless operational and business interaction and create networked and virtual organizations.
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The LIBI Grid Platform for Bioinformatics
It is a property referring to the ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (inter-operate). Mainly referred to the basic grid services like resource management, information management, data management, security.
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Internet of Things Application for Intelligent Cities: Security Risk Assessment Challenges
Characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems.
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The ISSAAC Model of Virtual Organization
Synchronizing of operations with VO partners.
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Towards Conflict-Free Virtual Enterprises
An attribute given to systems, applications and data that assigns their ability to communicate with another systems, applications and data in a manner that they may exchange and mutually use that data.
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Rights Expression Languages
Capability of one independent DRM system to interface with other independent DRM system, and allow seamless flow of content.
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Analysis of Interoperability of e-Business Documents
Ability of information and communication technology (ICT) systems and of the business processes they support to exchange data and to enable the sharing of information and knowledge.
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CAD Software and Interoperability
It is the ability of several systems, identical or completely different, to communicate without any ambiguity and to operate together.
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Preliminary Sizing and Performance Calculations of Unmanned Air Vehicles
The ability of military equipment or groups (e.g., UAVs) to operate in conjunction with each other.
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An Integrated Approach Towards Developing Quality Mobile Health Apps for Cancer
The ability of organizations to interact towards mutually beneficial goals, involving the sharing of information and knowledge between these organizations, through the business processes they support, by means of the exchange of data between their ICT systems.
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BIM and Interoperability for Cultural Heritage through ICT
Is defined as the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.
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Interoperability in IoT
Is the ability to exchange data and use the information across systems, applications, or system components.
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Industry 4.0 and Its Effects on the Insurance Sector
The ability of cyber physical systems (e.g., workpiece carriers, assembly stations and products) to involve people and smart factories through the internet of objects and the internet of services to communicate with each other.
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Challenges of Interoperability in an Ecosystem
Interoperability is the capability to exchange and reuse information, messages, and documents between applications and business partners. As a multifaceted concept, it possesses three different dimensions: technical, semantic, and organizational interoperability.
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The CGIAR Virtual Library Bridging the Gap Between Agricultural Research and Worldwide Users
Ability of a system or a product to work with other systems or products without special effort on the part of the customer. Interoperability is made possible by the implementation of standards
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ALBA Cooperative Environment for Scientific Experiments
Possibility of performing computation in a distributed heterogeneous environment without altering the technological and specification structure at each involved node.
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Human Fragilities Supported by the Digital Social World
Is defined as the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.
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Critical Success Factors in E-Democracy Implementation
The capacity to move data between different software applications.
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A European Evaluation of the Promises of LOs
The condition for a learning object to operate in any technical environment.
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Security Improvements for Safer Cross-Border E-Health Services in Europe
Interoperability, within the context of European public service delivery, is the ability of disparate and diverse organisations to interact towards mutually beneficial and agreed common goals, involving the sharing of information and knowledge between the organisations, through the business processes they support, by means of the exchange of data between their respective ICT systems.
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Structural Data Binding for Agile Changeability in Distributed Application Integration
Asymmetric property between a consumer C and a provider P ( C is compatible with P ) that holds if C is compliant with P .
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HBIM Data Management and Visualization for Healthcare Facilities
Is defined as the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.
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E-Government Models and Application of Digital Technologies for Tax Administration
Functional compatibility, system characteristics, interfaces which are easily understandable and can interact with other systems.
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E-Learning Function Integration with Corona 2
The possibility of platforms to share functions, particularly those linked to the use of content modules which, in order to be used by the interoperable platforms, must adapt to the use of specific protocols (LOM, AICC, SCORM). The aim of the Corona project is to extend the interoperability of the platforms from the simple use of learning objects to all of the interaction functions.
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Digital Transformation Challenges for the Implementation of Quality Electronic Medical Records
The ability of organizations to interact towards mutually beneficial goals, involving the sharing of information and knowledge between these organizations, through the business processes they support, by means of the exchange of data between their ICT systems.
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An Interoperable ICT Educational Application for TOEIC Preparatory Study
Interoperability is the capacity of ATR CALL BRIX to create a single learning environment in which university students who are trying to improve their TOEIC scores and EFL teachers can collaborate in a learning enterprise.
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