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What is Intersectionality

Challenges and Opportunities for Women in Higher Education Leadership
The interconnectedness of social identities of an individual or group that create lend to overlapping and interdependent discriminatory experiences with social systems.
Published in Chapter:
The “Double-Whammy” of Being Black and a Woman in Higher Education Leadership
Stephanie R. Logan (Springfield College, USA) and Harriette Scott Dudley (Tulsa Community College, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7056-1.ch006
Abstract
The purpose of this chapter is to inform readers and to expand their understandings about specific challenges and solutions that are associated with the leadership of Black women in higher education. In particular, this chapter will present the views and experiences of two African American females, one being a new department chair at a small liberal arts college and the other being a new community college dean, committed to social justice and servant leadership. Using critical race theory, Black feminist perspectives, and intersectionality, the authors seek to document their investigation of society and culture through the sharing of their own lived experiences. Through their auto-ethnographies, the authors also answer the call to discuss how racial and gendered identities inform leadership development in order to challenge hegemonic discourses in higher education leadership.
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Measuring Enclosures and Efficacy in Online Feminism: The Case of Rewire
An approach to power structures and lived experiences that addresses the ways in which the ideologies of racism, patriarchy, capitalism, etc. are interconnected.
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Crossing Borders: Challenges of Refugee Women
The interconnected nature of multiple oppressions, disadvantages, and discrimination.
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Counseling Gifted Black Students
is a term coined to describe overlapping or intersecting social identities and related systems of oppression, domination, or discrimination ( Crenshaw, 1989 ).
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Boosting Gender Integration in Social Enterprises as a Solution to Poverty: Cases in India
It denotes interconnection of social categorizations like race, class, and gender, which is thought to create overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
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The Question of Gender Equality: A Feminist Perspective
It refers to the complex and cumulative ways in which different forms of discrimination (such as racism, sexism, and classism) combine, overlap, and intersect in the experiences of marginalized people or groups. In feminist theory, the term as coined by Kimberle Crenshaw is related to triple oppression.
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Organizational Climate Change: Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Belonging
An analytical framework for understanding how aspects of a person's social and political identities combine to create different modes of discrimination and privilege ( Crenshaw, 1990 ).
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Navigating Inequitable (Mis)Treatment and Racist Harassment in Higher Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Self-Decentered Autoethnographic Case
The interconnections between social identity categorizations such as race, gender, ethnicity, and class, sometimes leading to complex and overlapping discrimination or disadvantage or unfair treatment.
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Why Hair Isn't Just Hair: A Systemic Approach to Contradict DEI Initiatives and Undermine Title VII
The interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
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Teaching Up: Female Sociologists Teaching About Privilege
The idea that an individual’s experiences are not based solely on one social identity such as race, but on the interactions of multiple social identities such as race, gender, sexual orientation, age, class, and ability status among others.
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Black and Brown Women Fostering Authentic Activism in Counseling Programs Amid Social Unrest
The interconnection and overlapping systems of multiple social identities, including but not limited to race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, ability, sexual status, sexual orientation, etc.
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Re-Complicating Intersectionality Considering Differences in Language and Personality Type When Considering Strategies for African American Women's Career Development
As defined by Patricia Hill Collins and later expanded by Kimberlé Crenshaw describes the simultaneous identity experience between co-existing identities. Identities can be dynamic and include race, gender, sex, age, ability, etc.
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#DeleteDeficitThinking: Strategies to Name and Challenge Deficit Thinking in Universal Design for Learning
The critical analysis perspective that aspects of one’s identity intersect and interrelate and that discrimination across these identities is not isolated.
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Power in the Pause: Benefits of African American Female Mentorship in Higher Education
Analytic structure through which feminist scholars in various fields talk about the framework identities of race, class, gender, and sexuality (Cooper, 2016).
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Nobody Knows the Troubles That I See: Perceptions of African American Women Professors Regarding Their Lived Experiences in the Academy
The oppression associated with overlapping of aspects of women’s social identities, including but not limited to class, gender, and race. The two forms of intersectionality most commonly referenced are political and structural. Political intersectionality refers to how an individual can belong to multiple social groups, each possessing its own political agenda; those at the intersection of the social groups can feel torn or as if they do not have a voice. Structural Intersectionality refers to the intersection of multiple social systems that inform the experiences and sometimes unintentionally oppresses certain groups of individuals.
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My Lens My Influence
This theorizes the strata of oppression based on the multiple intersections of cultural identities such as race, class, ability, gender, linguistics, sexuality, etc.
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University Diversity Challenge: BAME Students and Small Specialist Institutions
An analytical framework for understanding how aspects of a person's social and political identities combine to create different modes of discrimination and privilege. The term was conceptualized and coined by Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw in a paper in 1989.
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Transformative Social and Emotional Learning: Examining Learning Management Systems Through the Pairing of Digital Learning Environments
The overlap of multiple independent identities that are influenced by culture and may carry varying levels of advantage or disadvantage.
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Second to None: Contingent Women of Color Faculty in the Classroom
A theoretical notion that names the relationship(s) between/among minoritized identities and the systems of oppression within which those identities exist and interact.
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Conceptualizing Gender Mainstreaming and Women Empowerment in the 21st Century
The concept first came from the legal scholar Kimberlé Crenshaw in 1989 and is largely used in Feminist theory. It discusses the overlap of various social identities contributing to the systematic oppression and discrimination experienced by women. It refers to the focusing on multiple inequalities based on class, caste, racial and ethnic origin, disability, age, religion, sexual orientation, etc. so that no one is missed out from the development agendas like resource allocation and policy formulations of gender mainstreaming.
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An Intersectional Study of the Funding Experiences of South African University Students After Majority Rule
Explains the way race, gender and socio-economic status work together to reinforce disadvantages among some people in our societies.
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Theorizing African American Women’s Learning and Development: Leveraging Workforce Diversity through Socio-Cultural Adult Learning Theories
Term coined by Crenshaw (1989) that describes experiences and struggles of Black women not adequately captured in the feminist and anti-racist discourse.
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Re-Envisioning Multiculturalism: Promoting and Applying Disability Competencies Within Clinical Supervision
A framework that recognizes the overlap of multiple social identities an individual may hold. These identities may contribute to one’s power and privilege or discrimination, marginalization, and oppression based on such facets of identity (e.g., race, ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, disability, class status, education, religion, etc.).
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Women in Higher Education Leadership: Exploring the Intersections of Race and Gender
Coined by Kimberlé Crenshaw, intersectionality is a feminist theory that takes into consideration the intersections of identity such as race, gender, socio-economic class, sexual orientation, religion, etc.
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Building Codes Don't Measure Up: A Case for Urban Material Performance Standards
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Westernising African Feminist Epistemology: Doxastic Injustice or Hermeneutical Ignorance?
Pertains to the interconnected nature of identifiable classifications such as gender, class, and race as applied to collective or individual groups, which contribute to a distinct overlap in terms of the emergence of discrimination and active disadvantage.
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Becoming an Intersectional Educator: A Developmental Spiral of Critical Consciousness
The interconnectedness of social categories such as race, class, gender, and sexuality as they apply to a given individual or group. These categories create overlapping systems of privilege, power, discrimination, and oppression.
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Caring as an Authoritative Act: Re-Thinking Respect for Students and Teachers
The idea that different types of oppression based on categorization exist simultaneously and create more powerful systems of oppression for groups and individuals than if they were to exist separate from one another.
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Theorizing Young People's Perceptions of Their Citizenship Identity
Everyone has simultaneous membership of several collectivities which interact with those of others.
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Leadership Models
Analysis claiming that systems of race, social class, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, nation, and age form mutually constructing features of social organization, which shape Black women’s experiences and, in turn, are shaped by Black women (Collins, 2009).
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Decolonial, Feminist, and Antiracist Pedagogies: Opening Paths Toward Diversity Through Teacher Training
An approach originating from black feminism in the US. It suggests an analysis of social reality from the understanding of the intersection of oppressions and privileges based on racism/ethnicity, gender, sexism, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, class, or disability (ableism).
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Women and Work During the COVID-19 Global Pandemic: Challenges, Intersectionality, and Opportunities
A framework for considering women’s overlapping identities, roles, and experiences to understand the barriers, challenges, obstacles, and opportunities they face.
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The Racial Battle Fatigue of Black Graduate Women in the Academy
A place where multiple identities converge, such as race, gender, sexual orientation, ability, etc.
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Queering K-12 Classrooms Through Literature Discussion and Dialogue
Systemic structures that oppress or privilege particular identities (race, ethnicity, ability, gender identity, and sexuality) within society resulting in discrimination and marginalization.
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International Schools as Models for Educators to Dismantle Oppression and Promote Social Justice
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Trauma-Informed School Counseling: Foundations and Interventions
The intersection between various socio-cultural identities and the way in which these intersections can impact an individual within their context.
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Exploring Peace Perspectives Through the Lens of Gender Inequality: Using Intersectionality to Examine Inclusiveness
Intersectionality is the concept that refers to the interconnectedness of the multiple dimensions of social relationships and power. The power structures underlying social differences such as gender, class, age, ethnicity and others between and among men and women have the potential to reinforce each other, creating dynamic situations of inclusion and exclusion. It also helps to explain how someone can hold privilege in some aspects of their life, while be disadvantaged in others.
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Towards a Cyberfeminist Framework for Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Social Media: An Introduction
Intersectionality in cyber feminism recognizes and analyzes how multiple forms of oppression intersect and interact in digital spaces. It acknowledges that individuals' experiences of gender-based violence and discrimination are shaped by the intersections of their race, class, sexuality, ability, and other social identities. By considering these intersecting factors, cyber feminism aims to challenge power dynamics, promote inclusivity, and advocate for equitable digital environments that address the diverse experiences and vulnerabilities of women from marginalized communities.
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Tracing the Rights of Domestic and International Kenyan House Helps: Profiles, Policy, and Consequences
Scholar Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw definition of the superimposing and relatedness of social identities, privileges and oppression.
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Identifiable Challenges as Global Complexities: Globalization, Gender Violence, and Statelessness
A concept often used in critical theories to describe the ways in which oppressive institutions (racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, ableism, xenophobia, classism, etc.) are interconnected and cannot be examined separately from one another.
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Decolonizing Global Learning and Internationalization: A Human-Scale Case Study of Innovation
The way that various dimensions of marginalization (such as race, class, gender, etc.) interact in a layered way that results in more complex lived experiences of prejudice.
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Supporting #momlife: A Balancing Act – Mom, Student, and Professional
How an individual’s different social identities intersect in their lives that can be discriminating or challenging.
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Liberate Our Schools: Taking Back Our History With Critical Race Theory
A theory that addresses people’s multiple layers of marginalization and oppression that work interdependently ( Crenshaw, 1989 ).
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Virtual Political Office Where Gender and Culture Meet
This is a new approach in gender studies based on the supposition that gender lies on the crossroads of many social factors: power, class, race, nation, and so forth. It presents a conventional product stipulated greatly by these factors. Intersectionality is considered as a paradigmatic approach, especially applied to activism and social activities. It argues that the classical models of oppression within a society, such as those based on race/ethnicity, gender, religion, sexuality, class, disability, and other markers of difference do not act independently of one another. Instead, these forms of oppression interrelate, based on which markers apply to a given individual (and intersectionality derives its name from this intersection of forms of oppression). Intersectionality thus holds that knowing, for example, that a woman lives in a sexist society is insufficient information to describe her experience; instead, it is also necessary to know her race, her sexual orientation, her class, and so forth.
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Ageism: Underlying Factors, Consequences, and Ways to Combat It
Intersectionality theory emphasizes that people are part of different groups, such as age and gender. Therefore, they may simultaneously experience the advantages and disadvantages associated with these different groups. Being a member of more than one group can bring with it different stereotypes for everyone (see Cole, 2009 ; Marcus & Fritzsche, 2015 ; Richardson & Loubier, 2008 ).
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Equity and Diversity in the 21st Century University: A Literature Review
This perspective on individual identity argues that it is important to appreciate the intersection of race, socio-economic status, and age.
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Nine Black Women Leaders in the Academy: Promoters of Constructive Disruption and Institutional Change
It reflects an understanding that each of us has different experiences of discrimination and persecution that may be distinctive to us. As such, we should consider all experiences so as not to marginalize any individual because of any social, physical, or economic differences such as gender, race, class, sexual orientation, or physical ability.
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Beyond Accommodations: Study Abroad in Brazil, Teacher Preparation, and Global Consciousness
The interconnected nature of identity categories that are relationally and socially constructed.
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Hermeneutical Injustice via Interpretive Harm: Epistemologies of Change for Structural Oppression in Africa
Pertains to the interconnected nature of identifiable classifications such as gender, class, and race as applied to collective or individual groups, which contribute to a distinct overlap in terms of the emergence of discrimination and active disadvantage.
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(Desperate) Housewives, Domestic Angels, or Femmes Fatales: Stereotyped Categories of Female Representation on the Italian Social Semiotic Landscape
The interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
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Triple Selves at Work: Immigrant Muslim Women Navigating Careers in America
Refers to the merging and interconnecting of diverse identity markers, such as gender, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation.
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Evolving From a Heteronormative World Into an Intersectional Language Curriculum: Creating an LGTBQI+ Safe Space in the Classroom
It includes the understanding of people’s experiences of discrimination and oppression based on the interconnected nature of social issues that can marginalised them such as race, class, gender, sexual orientation, physical ability, etc.
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Educating Otherwise: A Pre-Service Learning Community Centered on Multicultural Literature
The manner in which one’s different interconnected identities may affect power, privilege, and oppression on both an institutional and personal level.
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Tracing Pathways to an Intersectional Framework for the Analysis of Social Inequalities: An Action-Research Project in Higher Education
Framework for analysis, advocacy and social change which states that each individual occupies a specific and unique location within their social contexts, trying to understand their experiences as a result of their multiple intertwined identities and the structures of power and oppression within they operate.
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Social Media and Social Movements: Strengths, Challenges, and Implications for the Future
With an emphasis on the experiences of women of color, intersectionality is a theoretical perspective, developed by Kimberlé Crenshaw in 1989 that focuses on marginalized individuals’ intersecting social identities.
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Wading Through Water: Black Female Doctors of Color Navigating Academia
This term is used to break down the complex nature of the identities of people of color and the result of them entering environments or engaging in interactions where white systems or systematic dispositions and processes are dominate.
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“What Are You?”: Intersectional Inequality and the Maintenance of White Privilege on a Mostly White College Campus
A framework for examining and understanding the ways in which various aspects of an individual’s identities together create their particular experiences of privilege or oppression. Intersectionality emphasizes the significance of considering the intersection of these identities rather than each factor alone in order to understand a person’s social location and personal experiences.
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The Importance of Diversity in the Healthcare Workforce
A framework for understanding how identities can overlap, including those related to ability, race, ethnicity, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, socioeconomic status, nationality, and religion.
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Beyond Multicultural Counseling Competencies: An Anti-Oppression Framework for Counselors
The convergence of multiple social and political identities for an individual or group that can impact life outcomes.
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The Predictive and the Inferential: Contexts of Unknown Future Workforce Leadership
Is the integrated and interconnected socially ascribed labels of classifications such as gender, class, and race when they are applied to either individuals or collective groups of people which may intentionally or unintentionally lead to marginalization and/or stigma.
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Collecting Data for Equity and Justice: Approaches and Methods for Collecting Sex and Gender Data
A term coined by Kimberlé Crenshaw to name the overlapping and cumulative nature of multiple inequalities (e.g. racism, ableism, cissexism, classism) on marginalized individuals.
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Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Praxis of a Latina
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How Theoretical Frameworks Inform the Understanding of the Relationship Between Gender and Cyberbullying
A theoretical framework that considers multiple dimensions of individuals’ lives, emphasizing that experiences may vary based on the overlapping nature of individuals’ social identities.
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Retention of Rural Latina College Students, Engaging Strategic Leadership: A Chicana Feminist Theory Perspective on Retention
The examination of, but not limited to, race, sex, class, national origin, rurality, and sexual orientation, and how these various combinations play out in various settings (UCLA School of Public Affairs: Critical Race Studies, 2014 AU182: The in-text citation "Critical Race Studies, 2014" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ).
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Empowering Underrepresented Students: Designing Innovator Spaces as Sites of Justice, Peace, and Equity Within University Library Ecosystems
A term coined by Kimberlé Crenshaw in 1989 to refer to how a person’s many identities converge and is often applied in politicized environments.
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An Ode to My Daughter: Navigating PWIs in the 21st Century
A lens through which you can see where power comes and collides, where it interlocks and intersects. It is a lens, a prism, for seeing the way in which various forms of inequality often operate together and exacerbate each other. -Kimberle Crenshaw
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Leaning In With Empathy: Leading Through a Global Pandemic
The simultaneous interactions of identity categories such as race, class, and gender that shape the experiences of individuals in social systems.
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Strategies for Planning, Developing, and Implementing a Heuristic for Inclusive Instructional Design for Higher Education Settings
Understanding of how an individual’s identities connect, with potentially compounding effects as they are viewed through a lens of power and privilege.
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Transcending Boundaries: LGBTQI+ Students and Empathic Teaching in a Time of Uncertainty
A lens for seeing how various forms of inequity such as class, gender, sexuality, race, and nationality interact with each other.
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Intersectionality: Women and Social Justice Educational Leadership in Appalachian Kentucky Schools
Intersectionality is a concept developed by Crenshaw (1991) which espouses the interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group (National Conference for Community and Justice, 2021 AU84: The in-text citation "Community and Justice, 2021" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ).
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Monitor and Adjust: Navigating Academe Through the Performance of Equity and Justice
Denoting the various ways in which race and gender interact to shape the multiple dimensions of Black women's employment experiences.
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Silenced, Shamed, and Scatted: Black Feminist Perspective on Sexual Trauma and Treatment With African American Female Survivors
Intersectionality is a framework that acknowledges overlapping oppression across race, gender, sex, class, and other social identities.
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Peer Support of Graduate Students of Color Through a Formal Graduate Student Association
The nature of interconnected social identities such as socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, religion, and gender as they form interdependent systems of oppression.
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African American Women Leaders: Leadership Requires Courage, Collaboration, Communication, and Commitment
The interconnectedness of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
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Nobody Wants to Work Under These Conditions
A term coined by Kimberly Crenshaw, but historically discussed by many Black feminist scholars and thinkers such as Ida B. Wells, bell hooks, Patricia Hill Collings and more. It is the consideration of multiple identities that compound the experience of oppression for one person. It is an analysis of systems of oppression across structures, identities, and time and geography.
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Allies in Solidarity Transcend Guilt and Unlearn Patriarchal Privileges: Diversity in Unity and the Advancement of a Critical Feminist Movement
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Culturally Responsive Program Evaluations
The indivisible interconnectedness and influences of cultural identities.
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Moving Towards Equity: Supporting Transgender and Gender-Diverse People in Education
The interaction of many types of oppression in social systems ( Cho et al., 2013 ).
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Footsteps: Wisdom and Insight Into Navigational Capital for New Black Women Diversity Officers
Intesectionality concerns the inter-related nature of social categories such as race, class, and gender, and the ways in which they overlap to create interdependent systems of oppression and discrimination. The term was coined by Kimberle Crenshaw in 1989.
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Race, Ethnicity, and Persons With Disabilities
The understanding of how multiple social and political identities combine to influence systems of inequality.
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Families, Students, and Teachers: Building Relationships in Special Education
The intersection of identities that may compound discrimination or marginalization such as gender identity and expression, SES, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, disability status, and physical attributes.
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A Critical Review of Gullah Geechee Midlife Women and Heirs' Property Challenges Along the Gullah Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor
Originally founded within Black feminist and critical race theories, intersectionality has been defined as the intersection of oppressive forces that lead to marginalization and contribute to explicit bias and discrimination. The term is often used within social justice research and may carry various contextual denotations and connotations in contemporary research.
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Critical Media Literacy as Transformative Pedagogy
recognition of the way different identities and forms of oppression, privilege, and/or identity overlap and interact. People are influenced by numerous dimensions of identities that change in different contexts and interact with each other at different times in various ways.
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Black Women in Higher Education Leadership: A Critical Review of the Achievements and Barriers to Career Advancement
Interrelated social classifications such as race and gender as they apply to an individual or group, creating interrelating and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
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Emerging Challenges: The Experiences of Turkish Women Immigrants in Saudi Arabia
Intersectionality is a methodological approach that takes into consideration the simultaneous effects of multiple social identities (e.g. race, gender, class, ethnicity, immigrant status) and their interactions with systems of oppression and discrimination.
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On the Misery of Bioethics: Good v Evil IV
A critical race theory idea created by Kimberlé Crenshaw in 1989 aimed to explain how oppressed people are.
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Leading for Liberation: How Black and Brown Leaders Navigate Oppression
The interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
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The Cumbersome Burden of Translating Policy Into Practice: Engaging Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Families in Special Education
The interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, gender, ability etc. as they apply to a given individual or group, creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
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Designing Text Message Learning to More Equitably Reach Students Wherever They Go: UNICEF SMS Lessons for Venezuelan Migrants/Refugees
Term used to describe how a learner could fit into more than one of UNICEF LACRO’s definitions of a most vulnerable learner (see entry below), such as a learner who is both a girl and a migrant/refugee or an indigenous learner with special needs living in a rural area without internet.
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Gender and Sexuality in Physical Education and Health Curricula in Japan: Feminist, Human Rights, and Anthropological Lenses
The ways in which interlocking oppressions such as race, class, gender, sexuality work together to compound inequities and discrimination.
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What Online Writing Spaces Afford Us in the Age of Campus Carry, “Wall-Building,” and Orlando's Pulse Tragedy
A noun phrase grounded in social justice research and ideology that refers to a person’s lived experiences made up of, but not limited to, race, assigned sex, sexual identity, gender identity, and socioeconomic background. The noun refers often to a person’s institutional in/access based on these factors.
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Developing Equity Literacy through Diverse Literature for Children and Young Adults
A critical theoretical approach to examining how the intersections of social and cultural status, including, race, ethnicity, social class, gender, sexual orientation, language, religion result in varied, and “different” experiences for individuals.
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Being and Belonging: Minority Within Minority
Refers to the interconnections between multiple identities (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, class, age, and sexuality) and experiences of exclusion.
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Religion and Spirituality Empowering Female Refugee Entrepreneurship
The consequences of being discriminated against for more than one identity category and the intragroup differences that lead to multifaceted forms of discrimination.
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An Ethics-of-Care Approach to Developing Students' Antiracist Practice in SLP Curricula: The Cross-Cultural-Communication Project
Intersectionality is a framework that accounts for the interconnected advantage and privilege, discrimination and oppression based on multiple social categories such as race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability status, etc.
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Heeding the Call of America's Youth: Teaching Pre-Service Teachers About Race and Young Adult Literature
A term coined by Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw that speaks to the ways identities intersect with one another. Intersectionality allows us to consider how people can experience multiple forms of oppression simultaneously in ways that are inseparable from each other.
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Reflections on the Role of Spirituality in How Young Children's Identities Are Constructed
The way in which socio-cultural factors overlap so that none of them should be seen in isolation.
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Intersectionality and the Construction of Inclusive Schools
The experience of individuals who identify at the intersection of multiply marginalized identities such as woman, disabled, or black.
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Ethical Dimensions of Sustainable Development: The Philosophy, Logistics, and Climate Change Education
A concept that highlights how various social identities (such as gender, race, class, etc.) intersect and interact, leading to unique experiences of privilege and oppression.
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Supporting Diversity and Inclusiveness Amid a Changing Academic Landscape
A framework for understanding how the interrelation of identities (such as race, ethnicity, gender identity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, nationality, religion, ability, and age) can overlap.
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A Bibliometric Analysis of Digital Feminism Research
It means that the classifications leading to negative discrimination are interrelated. Accordingly, the identity of women (slaves, workers) separates them from each other and sometimes even causes them to contradict each other.
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“We're Like a Men's Club the Way the Shriners and the Foresters Used to Be”: An Intersectional Approach to Gender, Race, White Supremacy, and the Proud Boys on College Campuses
Examining social institutions and everyday social interactions based on identities such as race, class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability.
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Social Foundations of Education and Service-Based Field Experiences: Critical Foundations for Socially Just Educators
A conceptual, methodological, and practical approach that examines the ways in which race, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and sexuality and other factors converge and how power, privilege, and oppression emerge impact individuals and societies and impact social, economic, historical, and political contexts in ways that privilege and oppress. This approach examines race, class, gender, and sexuality in a manner that sees these factors as fluid and simultaneous.
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From Practice to Posture: Core Practices for Showing Up Authentically in DEIB Work
The interconnectedness of social categories such as race, class, gender, and sexuality as they apply to a given individual or group. These categories create overlapping systems of privilege, power, discrimination, and oppression.
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The Victimization and Disparate Treatment of Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Connected system of societal categories (race, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, etc.) that contribute to the discrimination and unequal treatment individuals face.
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COVID-19, Poverty, Education, and Technology in Ghana: Challenges and Resolutions
It is the concept of several factors or axes overlapping and interconnecting to create a series of disadvantages to a group of people. Knowledge of this theory prepares individuals and groups to better deal with factors that adversely affect them in a meaningful manner.
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Anti-Racist and Intersectional Approaches in Social Science and Community-Based Research
A concept grounded in Black Feminism, and a term coined by legal scholar Kimberlé Crenshaw, illustrates the idea of multiple marginalization or, what happens when an individual’s identities face varying levels of oppression. For example, rather than examining race and gender as single issues, intersectionality examines the interconnections between race and gender and the joint impacts of race and gender on discrimination (so that being a black woman is not just being black and being a woman).
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In Need for More Tailored Feminist Stories in a Time of Crisis
A multidimensional approach to social inequalities (including gender inequalities) based on taking into consideration many categories of analysis-sex, gender together with age, nationality, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and educational background, among others).
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Critical Race Theory: A Framework for Examining Social Identity Diversity of Black Women in Positions of Leadership
Refers to the convergence or intersection of race, gender, and social class; denotes the various ways these social constructs interact and shape multiple dimensions of Black women’s experiences (Crenshaw, 1989).
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Using Autoethnography to Engage in Critical Inquiry in TESOL: A Tool for Teacher Learning and Reflection
The intersection of multiple social identities including gender, race, social class, and national origin. This concept was developed by Black feminist response to the limitations of the accumulated disadvantage model ( Mullings, 1997 ) and the recognition that the intersections of gender with other dimensions of social identity are the starting point of theory (Crenshaw, 1994 AU30: The in-text citation "Crenshaw, 1994" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. , 2005 AU31: The in-text citation "Crenshaw 2005" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ).
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