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What is Metacognition

Handbook of Research on Transnational Higher Education
It refers to high levels of human mental activities that control cognitive processes.
Published in Chapter:
An Innovative Approach to Training International Students in Workplace Written Communication Skills
Elena Verezub (Swinburne University of Technology, Australia), Hua Wang (Swinburne University of Technology, Australia), and Jeremy Glover (Swinburne University of Technology, Australia)
Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 13
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4458-8.ch021
Abstract
According to the “Employability Skills for the Future” report (DEST, 2002), communication skills are one of the essential employability skills, which contribute to a productive and harmonious relationship between employees and customers. This chapter discusses an innovative approach to the design, delivery, and evaluation of the “Workplace Written Communication Skills for the Hospitality Industry” program. The delivery of the program is based on blending traditional approaches with incorporating a custom-built e-learning program in teaching how to read e-texts effectively while applying metacognitive reading strategies. The results of the program demonstrate both qualitatively and quantitatively that students improve their written communication skills required for the workplace and their success in the university study, as well as increase their motivation and self-confidence. This, in turn, has implications not only for the development and teaching of the program; it suggests new ways for the overall development of communication skills programs and training international students.
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Authentic E-Learning in a Virtual Scientific Conference
Metacognition is a term used to describe people’s knowledge and regulation of human cognition. Strictly speaking, metacognition refers to cognition about one’s own cognition (…). Metacognition (…) differs from cognition in that cognitive skills are those that help a person perform a task; metacognitive skills are those that help a person understand and regulate cognitive performance” (Schraw, 1998, p. 91).
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Social Sustainability via Critical Reflexivity: Strategic Gamification in Higher Education
Part of the awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes; an integral component of the capacity for reflection and critical reflexivity.
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Translator Education and Metacognition: Towards Student-Centered Approaches to Translator Education
Refers to knowledge about cognitive processes and the way people use those thought processes to perform cognitive tasks like reading, remembering, interpreting, listening, and translating. Metacognition also refers to the control people can exert over their cognitive processes by planning, monitoring and evaluating their realization. Metacognition has a social component that allows us to compare our cognitive performance to that of other people.
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A Service-Learning Program for Multilingual Education at an Early Age: Tandem Teaching Experiences
An ability to engage in cognitive processes of planning, monitoring, and evaluating; a crucial component of metacognition is the capacity of critical thinking that implies an awareness of both the object and the process of thinking.
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Redefining the Higher Education Landscape through Problem-Based Learning
Awareness and knowledge of your own thinking and learning through the process of reflection and self-evaluation of learning.
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Undergraduate Students' Motivation to Online Learning in a Low-Resource Setting: Challenges and Expectations
Metacognition is the ability to manage one’s thought processes. Learners can repeatedly understand any topic or process with the aid of metacognition.
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Reflection as a Process From Theory to Practice
Self-monitoring one’s own thought processes and the attendant assumptions that underlie the thinking.
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Educational Robotics: A Journey, Not a Destination
The knowledge about our own cognition. It is how students’ knowledge and beliefs about their interactions with cognitive tasks and strategies allow them to monitor and regulate cognition and learning.
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A Voice and a Choice: My Journey From 2x Learner to 2x Teacher
The process of thinking deliberately about how you plan, monitor, and assess your own learning, and the process of reflecting on learning.
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Knowledge-Building through Collaborative Web-Based Learning Community or Ecology in Education
If students can develop metacognition, they can self-execute or self-govern their thinking processes, resulting in effective and efficient learning outcomes.
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The Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak Among Healthcare Workers: The Crucial Role of Psychological Functioning in Preventing Burnout
It refers to a person's ability to regulate their thinking and learning and consists of the self-assessment skills: planning, monitoring, and evaluating.
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Leveraging the Power of Diversity in Workplace Learning Strategies
Self-awareness of one’s learning styles, preferences, patterns, and strategies.
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Teaching Critical Thinking Skills to Foster Social-Emotional Learning
The awareness of one’s own learning or thinking process (thinking about thinking).
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Increasing Student Engagement in Remote Learning Using Self-Assessment
The awareness and understanding of the cognitive processes used to assess one’s knowledge and performance.
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The Role of Graphic Novels in K-12 Classrooms
The awareness and analysis of one’s thinking and understanding, especially when reading.
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I Learn this Way!: Educational Workshop for Dyslexic Students
Knowledge of their own cognitive functioning and strategies put in place to control this process of knowledge.
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Strategies for Efficient, Meaningful, and Inclusive Online Learning Environments: It's About Time
Student engagement in awareness of own thoughts and feelings, typically in the context of learner outcomes developed during assigned tasks. An essential component of learner-centered pedagogy.
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Supporting the Development of Lifelong Learning Skills
A type of higher-order thinking involving active control over the cognitive processes engaged in learning.
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Tutoring: Between Future Teachers Stakes and Perspective in a Potential Learning Process
Personal reflexion oriented to the way of doing for person involved in a learning process with particular attention on transfer benefits.
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Research, Theories, and Pedagogical Practices of Cultural Metacognition in Cross-Cultural Business Education
Thinking about thinking, comprising the processes of monitoring and adjusting one’s thoughts and strategies toward learning new, higher-order learning skills.
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21st Century Problem-Based Learning: A Medical Education Asset by Rational Design or Retrofit
Self-reflection regarding one’s own educational advancement, in other words learning about learning.
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Socially Shared Metacognition Among Undergraduate Students During an Online Geology Course
An individual’s acquired awareness and understanding of his or her own cognitive processes.
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The Role of Metacognition in Learning via Serious Games
Metacognition is “knowledge of one's knowledge, processes, and cognitive and affective states; and the ability to consciously and deliberately monitor and regulate one's knowledge, processes, and cognitive and affective states” ( Hacker, 1998 , p. 3).
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The Red Bandanna: A Curriculum as Racialized Text Experiment for Pre-Service Teachers
Ability to think through your own thought processes, resulting in both self-awareness of your creations and your own identity formation, biases, and assumptions.
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Neuropsychological and Cognitive Control Deficits in Depression
Metacognition refers to the psychological structures, knowledge, events, and processes that are involved in the control, modification and interpretation of thinking itself. According to recent theorizing, metacognition is an important factor in the development and maintenance of psychological disorder.
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Human Cognition in the Design of Assistive Technology for Those with Learning Disabilities
Refers to an individual’s awareness of his or her own cognitive processes and strategies (e.g., Flavell, 1979); commonly referred to as “thinking about thinking” (Brunning et al., 2004; Clark, 2003; Reid & Lienemann, 2006).
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Cultivating ILCs in China: A Pathway to Culturally Sustaining and Transformative Education
Awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes, allowing learners to think about their own thinking and to be conscious of their own learning.
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Crossing the Digital Divide: Metacognition for Learning in the Digital Age
Reflection on one’s own knowledge, understanding and thinking processes.
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Learning the Active Way: Creating Interactive Lectures to Promote Student Learning
This is the understanding and awareness of one’s own thought processes, or the thinking about thinking process.
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Internet Technologies and Language Teacher Education
This term is used in cognitive theory to describe the awareness of one’s own thinking or cognitive processes in order to improve self-development.
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Response to Intervention in the State of Florida
Being consciously aware of the ability to think, learn, and apply one’s knowledge to a particular task to perform it.
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Distance Collaboration with Shared Concept Maps
is the active and conscious control over the process of thinking that is used in learning situations. It is based on the intentional use of stored experiences of differentiation, comparison and organisation among different pieces of knowledge and from different external sources, and on the use of strategies for challenging and rehearsing knowledge. Metacognition can be supported by mediated concept mapping and even more by CCM.
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Ludic Approaches to Teaching and Learning: Facilitating the Emotional Self at Work in Higher Education
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The Implementation and Impact of a Self-Regulated Learning Survey on Student Outcomes
Our thinking about our own thinking. It is our knowledge and self-awareness of our own cognitive processes and behaviors.
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Academic Motivation: For the Love of Learning
“An individual’s knowledge concerning his own cognitive processes” (Brown, 1977, p. 1 AU145: The in-text citation "Brown, 1977, p. 1" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ).
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Online Learning and Metacognition: A Design Framework
The capacity of students to exercise some degree of control their own learning processes. Subsequently students then are in a position to manage their own learning outcomes. However in order to exert control over their learning, students need to be aware of their learning processes. There are two complementary components to metacognition: 1) knowledge of cognition (for example, knowledge of factors influencing one’s performance, strategy selection); and 2) regulation of cognition (e.g. goal setting).
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Developing Thinking Skills in a 4th Grade Design Studio in Trinidad and Tobago
“Thinking about thinking” or an awareness of one’s own thought processes.
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Glad to Have Taken the STEPS: Aspects that Contribute to Success in an Online Learning and Teaching Environment
Thinking about thinking, a process through which teachers and students are able to reflect on the factors that shape their thinking and perspectives on particular issues.
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The Value of Metacognition and Reflectivity in Computer-Based Learning Environments
Thinking about one’s own cognitive processes, awareness and control of one’s own cognitive processes.
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Balancing the Leadership Equation: Know Yourself and Know Your Follower – A Modern Case Study of Metacognition and Servant Leadership
A higher level awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes developed by psychologist John Flavell.
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How Is Your Connection?: Integrating Social and Emotional Learning Into Online Course Design
Awareness of one’s own cognitive processes and the ability to control and modify those processes in order to achieve goals.
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Expanded Collaborative Learning and Concept Mapping: A Road to Empowering Students in Classrooms
the awareness of one’s cognitive processes and the efficient use of this self-awareness to self-regulate these cognitive processes. This active control over the process of thinking is necessary to regulate one’s the lifelong learning.
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Information Technologies for Adolescents
Monitoring and control of thinking processes.
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Promoting Student Self-Regulation and Motivation Through Active Learning
Knowledge about one’s own knowledge and applying that knowledge in practice ( Flavell, 1979 ).
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People First, Students Second: Addressing Well-Being to Overcome Adversity
Metacognition is commonly known as “thinking about thinking”; in the present chapter it is divided into the components of knowledge and regulation of cognition. Knowledge of cognition, in alignment with Flavell (1987) , is divided into personal, task, and strategic knowledge. Metacognitive regulation, as per Schraw and Dennison (1994) is divided into planning, monitoring, debugging, information managing, and evaluating.
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Towards Realizing Twenty-First Century Skills: Deliberate Scaffolding of Metacognition in Instruction
The capacity of students to exercise some degree of control their own learning processes. Subsequently students then are in a position to manage their own learning outcomes. However, in order to exert control over their learning, students need to be aware of their learning processes. There are two complementary components to metacognition: 1) knowledge of cognition (for example, knowledge of factors influencing one’s performance, strategy selection); and 2) regulation of cognition (e.g., goal setting).
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A Laboratory for Creativity: How Youth Thrive With Design Thinking and STEAM Education
The cognitive processes used to plan, monitor, and assess one's knowledge, understanding, and performance.
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Information Competency and E-Learning
Analysis of one’s own thinking and learning processes
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Cultivation of Leadership in Higher Education Students
An individual’s awareness and knowledge of their own cognitive processes. A capacity for metacognition enables individuals to exert control over their own learning. May be considered to have two components: knowledge and regulation.
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The Role of Pedagogical Agents on Learning: Issues and Trends
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The Use of Technology in Urban Populations
Metacognition is the ability to evaluate one’s own comprehension and understanding of subject matter, and use that evaluation to predict how well one might perform on a task.
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Evaluation of a Training Program for Trainee Teachers in Active Methodologies for Teaching Social Sciences
People's ability to reflect on their thought processes and the way they learn, becoming aware of their own cognition and acquired learning.
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“Visit to a Small Planet”: Achievements and Attitudes of High School Students towards Learning on Facebook – A Case Study
The knowledge of one's own cognitive and affective processes and states as well as the ability to consciously and deliberately monitor and regulate those processes and states. The first formal model of metacognition was proposed by Flavell (1979) .
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Toxic Femininity in Higher Education: Academia's Sting in the Tail – The Queen Bee
Is the capacity to make meaning and have awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes.
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Developing Student Self-Efficacy Through Academic Coaching
A type of higher-order thinking involving active control over the cognitive processes engaged in learning.
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Metacognition and Critical Thinking: Assessment Methods
The knowledge about one’s own knowledge and awareness of one’s own cognitive processes.
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Hidden Disabilities: Nonverbal Learning Disabilities
Megacognition refers to thinking about thinking or knowing about knowing; it involves how one understands, adapts, and changes their own ways of thinking and knowing.
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The Art of Consumption: Cultivating a Healthy Food and Media Diet in Children
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Case Study of Urban 4th/5th Grade Teachers and Students Engaged With E-Texts
Thinking about thinking, or knowing about knowing, often accompanied by an overt awareness of the process.
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Key Aspects of Teaching and Learning in the Online Environment
Awareness of one’s own cognitive processes and about their own self-regulation, also considered “knowing about knowing.”
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Technology Integration and the Teacher-Student Relationship
When a student reflects on their own learning with the assistance of a more knowledgeable other by analyzing and trying strategies, understanding how others are thinking, and being more aware of themselves as learners.
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Metaliteracy and Multiple Literacies
A personal awareness of one’s thought processes.
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Reducing Second Language Writing Anxiety: Creating a Novel Process-and-Collaboration-Centered Pedagogy
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Dividing Attention and Metacognition
Learners’ assessments of their learning and the study choices that learners make based upon their assessments.
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A Comparative Study on E-Note-Taking
The ability and skills of learners to be aware of and monitor their learning processes.
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Metacognitive Knowledge and Language Learning in a Web-Based Distance Learning Context: The Case of Adult EFL Learners in China
The awareness and understanding of one’s own cognition and the processes used to plan, monitor, and evaluate one’s own thinking, learning, and performance.
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Comprehensive Learner Record as a Vehicle for Assessment and Learning Transparency in a Skills Economy
Is the process of thinking about thinking and is considered a critical component of successful learning. Metacognition involves self-reflection of strengths, areas of growth, and the development of strategies to achieve goals.
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Using Technology to Promote Student Ownership of Retrieval Practice
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Massively Multiplayer Online Games as Spaces for Metacognition and Self-Regulated Learning
One’s ability to be aware of one’s thinking, feeling, and learning processes—before, during, and after events, tasks, and conditions—along with one’s ability to act or make intentional choices based upon that awareness.
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Flipping the Classroom in STEM Education
Awareness and regulation of one's cognitive processes, used to improve learning outcomes.
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Preservice Teachers' Development and Application of Critical Thinking Skills in a Social Studies Methods Course
Thinking about and understanding one’s own thinking process – an awareness of the personal ways in which one thinks, knows, and learns.
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Self-Regulated Learning in Video Game Environments
Metacognition is a knowledge or cognition about cognitive phenomena, or more commonly, thinking about thinking or cognition about cognition. Metacognition involves and awareness that one is an “actor in their environment” (Flavell, 1979).
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Playful Learning, Thinking Dispositions, and Daring and Challenging Play in Early Childhood
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Team-Based Learning in Introductory Translation Courses
Higher-order thinking which leads to awareness and understanding of one’s own thought processes.
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Cognition and Learning
Is an internal awareness of cognitive abilities, including self-awareness of both learning and retrieval strategies (Sprinthal, Sprinthal, & Oja, 1994). Whereas cognition helps us to learn, metacognition helps us to monitor and structure our learning strategies. Thinking about thinking and deciding how best to manage mental processes.
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Metacognition: Thinking About Thinking
The process of thinking about thinking, self-reflection, and self-regulation of learning processes.
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Concepts of Propaganda: Educating Responsible Citizens by Integrating Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles Into a Smart Learning Environment
Includes the learner’s knowledge of their own cognitive abilities and of different strategies including when to use these strategies.
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Making Links Between Solutions to an Unstructured Problem: The Role of Pre-Written, Designed Student Responses
In the literature there exists various conceptualizations of the term ‘metacognition’. However, for this study, researcher Flavell’s early description is still relevant: “metacognition refers, among other things, to the active monitoring and consequent regulation and orchestration of these processes in relation to the cognitive objects on which they bear, usually in the service of some concrete goal or objective” ( Flavell, 1976 , p. 232). In particular monitoring and regulating progress against a set of goals are a focus of this study.
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Surviving the Hive in Global Crisis?: The Queen Bee Phenomenon in Higher Education
Is the capacity to make meaning and have awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes.
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