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What is Peer Review

Handbook of Research on Transnational Higher Education
A method through which higher education experts and scholars evaluate the quality of an external institution’s product as part of an accreditation process.
Published in Chapter:
Global Accreditation for a Knowledge-Oriented Community: Foundational Change breeds Global Access to Educational and Economic Opportunity
Henry C. Alphin (Drexel University, USA)
Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 26
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4458-8.ch016
Faculty, administrators, businesses, accrediting agencies, and other institutions concerned with higher education quality must act to provide a framework for international higher learning standards, particularly concerning e-learning and access in developing countries. Higher education internationalization efforts will continue through the use of IT, increased mobility, the knowledge economy, and an integrated world economy (Altbach & Knight, 2007). Global accreditation will help to assure quality and increase options to improve access. A global accreditation model would provide the impetus for a knowledge-oriented global community that provides access to students in developing countries, as well as traditional and non-traditional learners. The chapter examines key forces shaping the transformation and globalization of higher education, international entities taking a global approach to quality assurance and accreditation, and key concepts in development and implementation of quality assurance at the global level. Finally, the chapter concludes with future implications in the ongoing development of global accreditation.
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Quality Processes in Distance Education
(in relation to course development) a process by which a Faculty member’s colleagues provide feedback on nominated aspects of a course’s design for the purpose of enhancing the quality of the course prior to the course being offered to students; informal peer review may occur through the adoption of team-based models of course development
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From the Ethics of the Research Project to the Ethical Communication of Science: Particularities in the Social and Humanistic Fields
The process of evaluating the research projects or papers proposed to be published, by experts in the field of the paper. Usually the process of peer-review is blind (most commonly in evaluating research proposals)—the author not being informed of who is the reviewer for his paper—or double-blind (usually used for scientific papers in journals or books)—the authors has no idea who is the reviewer, and the reviewer has no knowledge of the identity of the author(s).
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The Social Order of Open Source Software Production
Process in which people engaged in the same kind of work judge the quality of one’s work, comment on it, and make decisions on these judgements.
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Faculty Development for Peer-Reviewed Digital Teaching Resources to Promote Inclusive Instruction
A process by which experts evaluate and give a recommendation about the quality of scholarly work for publication.
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Impacting Practice: The Role of Digital Credentials in Social Learning Communities
Community members and mentors provide feedback to the credential earner throughout the entire learning process. The feedback between mentor and mentee is baked into the metadata of a credential, emphasizing its role in the development of competencies.
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Teaching All Students to Write During a Pandemic: Best Practices for Writing Instruction
The process of reviewing the writing of others within the same class for the purpose of revision and editing.
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Investigating Asynchronous Interaction Between MOOC Learners Through Forum Use and Peer Review
The assessment of one’s work or performance by one or more people of similar competence (peers). In a MOOC environment peer review refers to the process in which a written assignment is assessed, rated and feedback is offered on it, by other learners (peers).
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Evaluating Teaching in Adult Education
Evaluation of teaching setting by another faculty member, which includes a pre-observation interview, a classroom (or teaching environment) observation, and post-observation interview. The relationship should be one that promotes discussion and development of teaching skills.
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The Capstone Experience: A Valuable Tool in Promoting Teacher Development
A rigorous manuscript review process conducted by researchers to determine the credibility of the author(s’) claims.
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Using an Online Discussion Board for Peer Review of Dissertation Writing For Ed.D. Students
“A classroom technique designed to help the student develop editing skills and a sense of authentic audience. The teacher first models a process of supportive critique that sets the tone for positive and useful comments. Students then read and review one another’s work in pairs or groups.” (NWP & Nagin, 2006, p. 27)
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Effects of Assessment Results on a Writing and Thinking Rubric
An approach used to provide peers (students) with feedback to improve their performance.
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Investigating Assessment Standards in the Netherlands, Italy, and the United Kingdom: Challenges for Responsible Research Evaluation
Assessment of the merits of research contributions by esteemed members of the scientific community ('peers'). Peer review serves as the dominant evaluation method in a variety of evaluative contexts (publications, project proposals, applications for promotion and tenure, prizes and awards, etc.)
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Accreditation Through the Eyes of Program Evaluation
The process of examining the institution or program that will be accredited by colleagues.
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Training Faculty to Motivate Adult Learners Through Best Practices in Online Pedagogy
Students evaluating and providing feedback on their peers’ work.
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Learners' Perception of Engagement in Online Learning
Receiving and providing feedback to the co learners. In learning environment peer review help create learning community where learners learn from each other.
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Pandemic Pages: Teaching Writing Virtually to Undergraduate and Graduate Students During COVID-19
The process of reviewing others' writing within the same class for the purpose of revision and editing.
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Expanded Collaborative Learning and Concept Mapping: A Road to Empowering Students in Classrooms
is a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. In unblind peer review the names are not shielded. In single-blind peer review the reviewers know the name of the author. In double-blind peer review neither the author nor the reviewers know each others’ identities.
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Fostering Collaboration in CSCL
Based on a critical analysis by learners of a product previously realized by peers. Usually the process includes three phases: during the first stage, learners are in charge of producing an artifact (a document, map, hypertext, etc.); in the second stage, they are asked to provide feedback to the work done by their colleagues; during the third phase, learners are asked to revise their original product on the basis of the received feedback. During the peer review, a reciprocal teaching approach is stressed, where one’s own interpretation of reality is to be compared with that of others. Unlike the Jigsaw technique, peer review is not associated with a specific social structure per se and can be orchestrated in different ways so that the reciprocal feedback can be provided either at the individual level or by pairs or even among groups. Furthermore, the review process may be organized in several ways: networked (any entity may provide feedback to any other entity), cyclical (entity A provides feedback to entity B, B to C, C to D, etc.), or reciprocal (entity A provides feedback to entity B, which in turns provides feedback to A).
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The Wit-Learning Methodology as a Means for Research Skills Acquisition: A Longitudinal Assessment
An evaluation process of contributed material where the participating authors perform the revision among each other.
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Improving the Literacy Skills of Struggling Writers: The Role of Writing in RTI at the Secondary Level
The process of checking the work of one’s equals (peers) to ensure it meets specific criteria.
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Addressing Discrepancies in Faculty and Student Perceptions of the Quality and Rigor of Online Courses
Faculty review of another faculty member’s online course either before or during launch of an online course.
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