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What is Trade Openness

Opportunities and Challenges for Multinational Enterprises and Foreign Direct Investment in the Belt and Road Initiative
The sum of a country's exports and imports as a share of that country's GDP, represents the involvement of the state in international flows of goods and capital.
Published in Chapter:
The Impact of Investment on the Economic Activity of the Balkan Silk Road Countries
Duško Bodroža (Institute of Economic Sciences, Serbia) and Miloš Kolavčić (Faculty for Banking, Finance, and Insurance, Belgrade Banking Academy, Serbia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8021-9.ch007
The aim of this chapter is to examine the impact of investment in research and development on economic growth, as well as the nature of the impact of trade openness and foreign direct investment on extended Balkan Silk Road economies. The authors used the general econometric specification of the regression panel model and for the period from 2002 to 2018. The results showed that expenditures on research and development and trade openness have a significant positive effect on the gross domestic product of the countries with lower GDP per capita, while foreign direct investment in these countries has a neutral and nonsignificant impact on gross domestic product. For the countries with higher GDP per capita, expenditures on research and development have a marginally negative effect on the gross domestic product. Trade openness is significantly positive, while foreign direct investments have a significant but neutral effect on the gross domestic product. The main limitations of the research are the use of data on total R&D investment and foreign trade relations instead of sectoral.
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Factors Influencing International Institutional Investments: A Case Study of the 21st Century India
An extent to which the host country is flexible and accessible to foreign investors for international trade.
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Trade and Environment Nexus: A Theoretical Appraisal
Trade openness refers to the orientation of a country’s economy in the context of international trade. The degree of openness is measured by the actual size of registered imports and exports of an economy.
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The Impact of Globalization on External Debts: Evidence From Developing Countries
Trade openness is an expression of how free or how strictly it is in countries' trade relations with the outside world.
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Exchange Rate Regime Preferences and Budget Deficits in Open Economies: Evidence From FGLS and PCSE Estimation Methods
It is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the exports and imports of the countries to the national income.
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