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What is Triangulation

Applied Social Science Approaches to Mixed Methods Research
The process by which the area under investigation is looked at from different perspectives. These can include two or more methods, sample groups or investigators. It is used to ensure that the understanding of an area is as complete as possible or to confirm interpretation through the comparison of different data sources.
Published in Chapter:
Data Speaks: Use of Poems and Photography in Qualitative Research
Carolyn N. Stevenson (School of General Education, Purdue University Global, USA)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 26
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1025-4.ch006
Abstract
Qualitative research methods provide the researcher with opportunity to share the lived experiences of participants in an authentic manner. These narratives can be enhanced through visual expression, such as use of photos, which provide another way to exercise self-expression. Found poetry has a rich history in participant-based studies, while self-studies utilize poems as an opportunity to address more philosophical or poststructuralist opportunities. These forms of data collection can provide a rich, thick description of those often overlying on the peripherals of society. By offering participants the opportunity to personally select descriptive photographs and articulate expression in their own voice through poetry, the lived experiences can authentically be displayed.
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On the Way to Researching Universities: The Case of Higher Education in Turkey
The use of multiple methods, theories, data and/or researchers in the research process.
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The Integration of CSR Practices in the Investment Decision: Evidence From Moroccan Companies in the Mining Industry
Is a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. It refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena.
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Applying a Digital Ethnographic Tool Into a Data Triangulation and Trustworthiness of Microfinance Over-Indebtedness Study in Bangladesh During COVID-19
A validation, that is the concept of triangulation is frequently applied. Multiple data sources and gathering processes have been cross-checked using this method.
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Assessing the Composition Program on Our Own Terms
The use of a variety of methodological instruments to gain separate perspectives of an issue.
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Traditional Market Research and Neuromarketing Research: A Comparative Overview
The application and combination of various research methods in the research of the same phenomenon in social sciences.
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Search and Rescue System Based on NB-IoT Wearable Device
In trigonometry and geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to it from known points.
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Mixing of Research Methods in Investigating Digital Archiving Practices at Selected Public Universities in Kenya
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Where Is Hanuman?: Hindu Mythology, Transmigration, and the Design Process of Immersive Experiences in Museums
It is a process of comparing data, from different sources, different point of views, comparing data collected in different times, etc.
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Positioning Methods and Technologies in Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Location sensing techniques that use the geometry of triangle and the measurement of its distances and angles to compute location of a target object.
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Methodology and Method in Case Study Research: Framing Research Design in Practice
The use of multiple methods and/or data sources in qualitative research undertaken to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena as they emerge.
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User Experience of Camera Phones in Social Contexts
The application and combination of at least two research methods or data gathering exercises to research the same phenomena in order to cross-checking one result against another, and increasing the reliability of the results.
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A Methodological Proposal to Analyse the Process for Implementing Competency-Based Learning (CBL) in a Business School
A technique used in research that helps to increase objectivity and credibility by using various sources, evaluators or methods for data collection and/or analysis.
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Improving Classroom Management and Teacher Retention: A Needs Assessment
A qualitative practice of gathering data from multiple sources and determining whether alignment and consistency exist among the data gathered.
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The Evolution of Drawing as an Equitable Way to Assess ELLs in a Middle School Science Classroom
Using multiple sources of data and/or methods as “a means of checking the integrity of the inferences one draws” ( Schwandt, 2007 , p. 298).
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Using Simple and Complex Mixed Methods Research Designs to Understand Research in Information Science
Use of more than one data-collection method, theory, or approach (e.g., grounded theory and ethnography) in one research project.
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All-in-One Academics: Mental Workload in Turkish Academic Employment
The use of multiple methods, theories, data and/or researchers in the research process.
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Using Action Research to Develop a Public Programming Strategy for Heritage Assets, With an Example From South Africa
A strategy that validates data through the use of multiple approaches, multiple theories, or multiple sources of evidence.
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The Nature of Research Methodologies
Is the combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon. The four types of triangulation: (1) data triangulation, (2) investigator triangulation, (3) theory triangulation, and (4) methodological triangulation.
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3-D Digitization Methodologies for Cultural Artifacts
Within postprocessing of digitized spatial information, the creation of faces or surfaces by joining vertices according to spatial distribution to create triangular planes.
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Human Capital in Tourism: A Practical Model of Endogenous and Exogenous Territorial Tourism Planning in Bahía Solano, Colombia
The use of variety of methods, and different types of data, to cross-check that the results obtained by another method are valid.
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Qualitative Methods in Research: Alternative Approaches and Navigating Complexities
Referring to different sources of data and use of varied methods.
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Case Study Methodology: An Analysis of Effective Methods in Business Cases
The process of gathering the same information from multiple data sources in order to increase credibility of generated results.
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Deep Learning Applications in Agriculture: The Role of Deep Learning in Smart Agriculture
Triangulation is a process of identifying a point in a three-dimensional space given its projection on multiple images.
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Historical Research on International Business, Management and Strategy: An Approach and Framework Development
Practice of using at least two, but idealistically, multiple sources of data such as data from interviews, focus groups and written archives, and multiple approaches to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of a phenomenon of interest by providing multiple perspectives, corroborating evidence and juxtaposing histories.
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“My Regular Pharmacy”: A Study on the Evaluative Criteria Consumers Use in Selecting an Independent Community Pharmacy as Their Regular One
The process of combining theoretical perspectives (theoretical triangulation), or data from different sources (data triangulation), or methods to conduct a study (methodological triangulation) or multiple investigators/researchers (investigator triangulation) to study a specific social phenomenon.
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Integral Meta-Impact: Integral Theory and Applying It With Meta-Theory Methodology for Validation, Dynamic Insight, and Effectiveness
With respect to integral and meta-theory this is the use of multiple different methods and data sources to cross check theory and conclusions.
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Challenges of a Case Study
A method applied in research to involve data from different sources to increase the study validity.
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Application and Contribution of Hermeneutic and Eidetic Phenomenology to Indigenous Knowledge Research
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From Spherical Photogrammetry to 3D Modeling
It is the principle used by both photogrammetry and theodolites to produce three dimensional point measurements. By mathematically intersecting converging lines in space.
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Designing an English Curriculum for Everyone
The process of comparing and measuring specific sources of information to attain a broader and complete picture of collected information.
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Studying Educational Digital Library Users and the Emerging Research Methodologies
The analysis of related data that has been collected by different means (e.g., user search logs and user interview on searching) or across different populations.
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The Movement of Mixed Methods Research and the Role of Information Science Professionals
The use of more than one data collection method, or theory, or approach (e.g., grounded theory and case study) in one research project.
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