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What is Heuristic strategies

Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, Second Edition
Problem solving strategies developed by experts through experience, otherwise referred to as tricks of the trade.
Published in Chapter:
Use of Cognitive Apprenticeship Framework in Online Learning
Tina Parscal (Colorado State University-Global Campus, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 7
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-198-8.ch326
Cognitive apprenticeship (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989) is an instructional framework that uses the underlying principles of traditional apprenticeship learning. The cognitive apprenticeship framework consists of the dimension of content, methods, sequence, and sociology. It focuses specifically on instructional modeling, coaching, and scaffolding. Through modeling, learners see expert facilitation techniques in a realistic setting. According to Schulte, Magenheim, Niere, and Schafer (2003), “the key issue is to make the problem solving process and the expert’s thinking visible to the learner” (p. 271). During coaching, learners receive guidance while they attempt to execute tasks and demonstrate skills. Scaffolding, the process of supporting learners while they acquire new skills, is provided and faded as learners begin to demonstrate mastery of these new skills. These techniques are employed in situated learning environments. Further, cognitive apprenticeship sets out to (a) identify an expert’s problem solving and critical thinking processes and make them visible to learners, (b) situate abstract task in authentic contexts, and (c) vary the diversity of situations in which problem solving may occur and articulate the common aspects in order to increase the potential for learning transfer (Collins, Brown and Newman, 1989).
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