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The New Threat to Employment

AI Forecasted to Overtake Programming and Corporate Jobs

By IGI Global on Jun 16, 2020

Editor Note: Understanding the importance of this timely topic and to ensure that research is made available to the wider academic community, IGI Global has made a sample of related articles and chapters complimentary to access. View the end of this article to freely access this critical research.

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With the shift to online-only environments and economic turbulence, many businesses are looking to streamline operations and the development of technology is accelerating. Due to this technological boom and the increased unemployment rate, many are questioning, “will robots replace workers?”

Many corporations are continuing to implement robots in production lines, trucking and logistics jobs, and even grocery store checkouts; however, this threat goes beyond these industries, with corporate and programming jobs now at risk. In a recent interview on “Yang Speaks” (a podcast of the former 2020 U.S. presidential candidate, Peter Yang), Jack Dorsey, CEO of Twitter, warns that artificial intelligence (AI) can threaten entry-level programming jobs, stating, “A lot of the goals of machine learning and deep learning is to write the software itself over time so a lot of entry-level programming jobs will just not be as relevant anymore.”

This statement has brought up the overall debate on humans vs. robots, and whether AI will replace workers and lead to a higher unemployment rate or help workers become more productive in the long run.

“Job replacement […] is not a new phenomenon. The loss of jobs caused by technological change is termed ‘technological unemployment’,” explains Prof. Weiyu Wang and Prof. Keng Siau, from Missouri University of Science and Technology, USA, in the Journal of Database Management (JDM) (IGI Global). “Some jobs, that have disappeared as technology has advanced, include switchboard operators, elevator operators, and typists. The disappearance of obsolete jobs that have been replaced by technologies is referred to as ‘technological job obliteration,’ each time an industrial revolution has occurred, people have been concerned about technological unemployment and technological job obliteration.”

Journal of Database Management (JDM)
Est: 1990| Published: Quarterly | ISSN: 1063-8016| EISSN: 1533-8010

This publication publishes original research on all aspects of database management, systems analysis and design, and software engineering. The primary mission of JDM is to be ...Learn More.

Although this threat has been occurring after each industrial revolution, recently the threat of technology displacing workers has mostly been within the manufacturing industry and now the power of AI has upended nearly every industry. Through AI, cloud computing, big data, and robotics, machines are now able to predict, perform, analyze, and measure various outcomes and tasks that the average employee does during their day-to-day. AI and technology can write computer scripts, predict diseases and deliver personalize healthcare plans, optimize legal research, preform customer services through chatbots, and more. Additionally, regarding COVID-19, they are providing a safer and more productive way to continue operations without health risks and the added benefit of streamlining finances through cutting salaries and employee benefits.

In a recent Brookings Institute report, they report that “better-educated, better-paid workers (along with manufacturing and production workers) will be the most affected by the new AI technologies, with some exceptions.” They concluded that AI will greatly impact:

  • Workers with graduate or professional degrees (they will be four times more exposed to AI during their employment than those with high school degrees)
  • Nearly every occupational group, including but not limited to agriculture, engineering, science, business, management, healthcare, legal, education, and administration
  • White and Asian men, as they are more represented in both analytic-technical and professional roles Bigger, higher-tech areas and communities

Although AI is growing in its capabilities, many are arguing that AI is leading the way to create more jobs and a more capable and intelligent society overall. Prof. Mohsen Attaran, California State University, Bakersfield, USA, et. al., in the International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems (IJEIS) (IGI Global), argue that technology within the workplace should be embraced as it enhances collaboration and leads to increased productivity.

International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems (IJEIS)
Est: 2005| Published: Quarterly | ISSN: 1548-1115 | EISSN: 1548-1123

This publication provides comprehensive coverage and understanding of the organizational, people, and technological issues of EIS. Design, development, justification, and implementation of EIS including ERP and EC will be discussed. ...Learn More.

Through adopting technology into the workplace, it provides benefits for the employee and the business alike, including:

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Additionally, through harnessing technology (AI specifically), it can assist in streamlining repetitive tasks, ensure that data is correctly reported and stored, as well as be implemented into systems to enhance workers’ applications and programs. It can open time for workers to focus their energies on higher-level thought or problem solving and lead to bigger and better breakthroughs and efficiencies.

In a recent Wired opinion article written by Kevin Scott, the CTO and executive vice president of AI and research at Microsoft, he expresses how he has seen new manufacturing jobs being created due to AI, robotics, and advanced automation. The adoption of AI is now allowing smaller companies to become more competitive with fewer resources and have the ability to create more jobs and higher-paying jobs.

Although this debate will continue on whether AI will replace workers, over the coming years it will undoubtedly change the way society interacts and works. Much like any new technology or advancement, the fear of the “unknown” will prevail and humans will always question what they do not understand or cannot innately control. However, it is important to remember that humans do have innate qualities that cannot be replicated by robotics or AI, and it is important in many professions to have “interpersonal” skills and communication.


Understanding that this topic will continue to evolve and the advancements in AI will radically shift the workplace, the latest research on AI, business intelligence, data science, and knowledge management is featured in the Journal of Database Management (JDM), edited by Prof. Keng Siau (Missouri University of Science and Technology, USA). This journal is indexed in Web of Science-Science Citation Index, Scopus, noted as an A-journal in ABDC Journal Quality List, and other notable indices, as it publishes the latest, emerging research on all aspects of database management, systems analysis and design, and software engineering.

It is currently available in electronic format (EISSN: 1533-8010) through IGI Global’s Online Bookstore at a 50% discount for 2021 journal subscriptions and is featured in IGI Global’s InfoSci®-Journals database. Recommend this publication and the InfoSci-Journals database to your library to have access to this critical research, as well as thousands of other research resources, including the articles below, in the IGI Global InfoSci-Journals database.



Complimentary Research Articles and Chapters on Artificial Intelligence and Business Automation:

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Featured Publications Surrounding This Topic:

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International Journal of Business Strategy and Automation (IJBSA)

Prof. José Poças Rascão (Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Portugal)

Est 2020| Published: Quarterly | ISSN: 2644-2094 | EISSN: 2644-2108

The International Journal of Business Strategy and Automation (IJBSA) is a journal whose focus is to promote and develop the knowledge of these sciences, regarding the decision-making of decision-makers by profit-making organizations or not, through analytical methods. IJBSA distinguishes itself as a journal from and for managers of profitable organizations or not, with an explicit focus on strategic decision making. The journal is a quarterly publication of original and unpublished works related to information sciences, business and strategic decision making that present results of theoretical and empirical studies and research, as well as real world applications and case studies in science, technology and innovation. The works published in the IJBSA should not only meet the high standards and originality of research in the information sciences, business and decision making, but also encompass the processes of strategic decision making in organizations.


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International Journal of Business Analytics (IJBAN)
Prof. John Wang (Montclair State University, USA)

Est 2014| Published: Quarterly| ISSN: 2334-4547| EISSN: 2334-4555

The International Journal of Business Analytics (IJBAN) is an indispensable resource for practitioners and academics that work in Business Analytics and related fields. Business Analytics is commonly viewed from three major perspectives: descriptive, predictive, and prescriptive. Business Analytics provides the framework to exploit the synergies among traditionally-diverse topics, such as the fields of data mining, quantitative methods, OR/MS, DSS, and so forth, in a more practical, application-driven format. The journal bridges the gap among different disciplines such as data mining, business process optimization, applied business statistics, and business intelligence/information systems. The journal supports and provides tools to allow companies and organizations to make frequent, faster, smarter, data-driven, and real-time decisions.


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International Journal of E-Business Research (IJEBR)
Prof. Jeffrey Hsu (Fairleigh Dickinson University, USA)

Est 2005 | Vols 17 | ISSN: 1548-1131| EISBN: 1548-114X

The emergence of electronic business is one of the most profound changes that revolutionized the process of buying, selling, and exchanging products and services over the Internet. Organizations and customers have access to vast amounts of data, information, and services that are not limited in time or space. There is a growing demand in electronic business research that will provide insights into issues, challenges, and solutions related to the successful application and management aspects of electronic business.




Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not reflect the views of IGI Global.


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1Wang, W., & Siau, K. (2019). Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Automation, Robotics, Future of Work and Future of Humanity: A Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Database Management (JDM), 30(1), 61-79. doi:10.4018/JDM.2019010104

2Attaran, M., Attaran, S., & Kirkland, D. (2019). The Need for Digital Workplace: Increasing Workforce Productivity in the Information Age. International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems (IJEIS), 15(1), 1-23. doi:10.4018/IJEIS.2019010101

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