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The Next Crisis During the “New Normal”: Mental Health

By IGI Global on Jul 16, 2020

Editor Note: Understanding the importance of this timely topic and to ensure that research is made available to the wider academic community, IGI Global has made a sample of related articles and chapters complimentary to access. View the end of this article to freely access this critical research.

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With predictions of up to 1.6 billion workers being affected economically, countless individuals losing loved ones, as well as increasing social isolation and uncertainty, a staggering number of people are experiencing depression, anxiety, PTSD, substance abuse, child abuse, and domestic violence in the “new normal." According to a recent The Atlantic article, United States federal emergency phone lines alone are up 1,000% from last year, as experts are predicting a continued wave of suicides within the post-pandemic future.

As many can predict, medical professionals and emergency workers are on the front lines trying to treat and prevent the mental health effects that are occurring. However, with medical professionals and emergency workers having up to a 2.2 times higher risk of suicide, what happens when they are faced with overcrowded hospitals, a heightened risk of contracting COVID-19, increased emergency calls, and continual trauma? 

Profs. Madeline Marks, Annelise Cunningham, et. al. from the University of Central Florida, USA, analyze this phenomenon in their article, “Trauma Management Therapy for First Responders”, in the publication Mental Health Intervention and Treatment of First Responders and Emergency Workers (IGI Global). View the article below:

Mental Health Intervention and Treatment of First Responders and Emergency Workers
Profs. Clint A. Bowers, Deborah C. Beidel,and Madeline R. Marks (University of Central Florida, USA)
Copyright 2020 | Pages: 372 | ISBN: 9781522598039| EISBN:9781522598046

This publication is an essential reference source that focuses on the latest research for diagnosing and treating mental health issues experienced by emergency personnel and seeks to generate awareness and inform clinicians about the unique circumstances encountered by these professionals. While highlighting topics including anxiety disorders and stress management...Learn More.

First responders risk their lives to protect the community and this profession is considered to be one of the most dangerous and stressful occupations in the United States (Del Ben, Scotti, Chen, & Fortson, 2006; U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). Society has long recognized the physical demands of first responders; however, what is less formally acknowledged are the negative psychological outcomes. The Oklahoma City Bombing and the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) were the two earliest large-scale critical incidents that illuminated the numerous negative mental health consequences experienced by first responders (Corrigan et al., 2009; North et al., 2002). More recent studies have identified comparable mental health consequences to those of large-scale critical incidents among first responders with exposure to more routinely encountered potentially traumatic events (PTEs) (see Johnson, 2010; Paulus, Vujanovic, Schuhmann, Smith, & Tran, 2017; Stanley, Boffa, Hom, Kimbrel, & Joiner, 2017).

Most notable among these negative mental health consequences is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The hallmark of a PTSD diagnosis is that symptoms result from exposure to a traumatic event. Traumatic events are those that include exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). First responders encounter these traumatic events repeatedly with high frequency as a function of their daily job requirements (Hartley, Violanti, Sarkisian, Andrew, & Burchfiel, 2013; Marmar et al., 2006). Documented prevalence rates for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among United States police officers range from 6.2% to 15% (Hartley et al., 2013; Pietrzak et al., 2012), and from 6.3% to 22% (Bernard, Driscoll, Kitt, West, & Tak, 2006; DeLorme, 2014) among United States firefighters. Although varied, most studies observe PTSD rates in excess of the general population (6.8%, Kessler et al., 2005) and observe PTSD rates similar to the prevalence rate observed in OEF/OIF veterans (12%, Hoge, Riviere, Wilk, Herrell, & Weathers, 2014). It is estimated that there are at minimum 250,000 first responders in need of treatment for PTSD (Haugen, Evces, & Weiss, 2012); however, there is little scientific literature to guide clinicians in the selection of an effective treatment for PTSD in these patients.

Given the comparable rates of PTSD among first responders and OEF/OIF veterans, the treatment literature on PTSD and veterans may help guide clinicians’ clinical practice. Both intensive outpatient programs (IOP) and traditional outpatient programs (OP) have been effective in the treatment of PTSD for veterans (Beidel, Frueh, Neer, Bowers, et al., 2019; Beidel, Frueh, Neer, & Lejuez, 2017). Among veterans that participated in one IOP, the relapse (1%) and dropout (2%) rates for the program were lower than other PTSD treatments and RCTs. In addition to the improved relapse and dropout rates, treatment effects were large (d = 2.06). Of the 100 participants that completed treatment, 65.9% no longer met DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD, 72% experienced clinically significant symptom improvement, and 94.6% met the VA designated benchmark for symptom improvement. Among veterans that participated in the OP, the relapse (4.5%) and dropout (26%) rates for the exposure portion of the program were compatible with other PTSD treatments and RCTs. Treatment effects were large (d = 2.06). Of the 49 participants that completed treatment across groups, 65.9% no longer met DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD, 42% experienced clinically significant symptom improvement, and 94.6% met the VA designated benchmark for symptom improvement.

Interested in Reading the Rest of the Article? Access the Full Article Through IGI Global’s InfoSci-Demo Account, here.


Understanding that the latest research around this topic is of the utmost importance, recent findings in emergency worker’s mental health is found in Mental Health Intervention and Treatment of First Responders and Emergency Workers (IGI Global), edited by Profs. Clint A. Bowers, Deborah C. Beidel, and Madeline R. Marks, from the University of Central Florida, USA. This title is an essential reference source that focuses on the latest research for diagnosing and treating mental health issues experienced by emergency personnel and seeks to generate awareness and inform clinicians about the unique circumstances encountered by these professionals.

It is currently available in electronic format (EISBN: 9781522598046) through IGI Global’s Online Bookstore at a 50% discount, and is featured in IGI Global’s InfoSci®-Books database (5,900+ e-books). Recommend this publication and the InfoSci-Books database to your library to have access to this critical research, as well as thousands of other research resources, including the chapters below, in the IGI Global InfoSci-Books database.

“The book offers important insight into the unique circumstances that first responders experience every day, in the wake of extreme violence and natural disasters, and now as they respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. It is a must read for clinicians, police officers, fire fighters, emergency medical personnel, academics, researchers, and policy makers who recognize the urgent need to understand the latest information regarding treatments that will improve the health and wellness of the first responder community.”– Frank Straub, Ph.D., Director of the National Police Foundation’s Center for Mass Violence Response Studies, USA

Complimentary Research Articles and Chapters on Emergency Workers, Mental Health, and Stress Management:

In response to the timeliness and importance of this topic, we have made all of the below articles and chapters complimentary to access. As such, please feel free to integrate these resources into your research and share them across your network.

View All Articles on This Topic

The “View All Articles on This Topic” navigates to IGI Global’s InfoSci-Demo Account, which provides a sample of the IGI Global content available through IGI Global’s InfoSci-Books (5,900+ e-books) and InfoSci-Journals (185+ e-journals) databases. If interested in having full access to this peer-reviewed research content, recommend these valuable research tools to your library.

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Featured Publications Surrounding This Topic:

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Recommend to Library
Mental Health Policy, Practice, and Service Accessibility in Contemporary Society
Prof. Jennifer M. Martin (Swinburne University, Australia)

Copyright: 2019| Pages: 323 | ISBN: 9781522574026 | EISBN: 9781522574033

This title provides innovative insights into contemporary and future issues within the field of mental healthcare. The content within this publication represents the work of medical funding, social inclusion, and social work education. It is a vital reference source for post-graduate students, medical researchers, psychology professionals, sociologists, and academicians seeking coverage on topics centered on improving future practices in mental health and wellbeing.


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Research Anthology on Substance Abuse and Addiction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice


Copyright 2019| Pages: 459| ISBN: 9781522576662| EISBN: 9781522576679

This title is an authoritative resource that comprehensively examines the prevalence, assessment, causes, and impacts of substance abuse and addiction from cultural, legal, psychosocial, theoretical, and medical viewpoints. Highlighting a range of pertinent topics such as technological addictions, drug treatment, and addictive behaviors, this publication is an ideal reference source for psychologists, researchers, mental health professionals, clinicians, academicians, and graduate-level students seeking current research on the prevention, assessment, and rehabilitation of substance abuse and addiction.
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Recommend to Library
Police Psychology and Its Growing Impact on Modern Law Enforcement
Profs. Cary L. Mitchell (Pepperdine University, USA) and Edrick H. Dorian (Los Angeles Police Department, USA)

Copyright 2017| Pages: 345| ISBN: 9781522508137| EISBN: 9781522508144

This title emphasizes key elements of police psychology as it relates to current issues and challenges in law enforcement and police agencies. Focusing on topics relevant to assessment and evaluation of applicants and incumbent officers, clinical intervention and prevention, employee wellness and support, operational consultation, and emerging trends and developments, this edited publication is an essential reference source for practicing police psychologists, researchers, graduate-level students, and law enforcement executives.


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Recommend to Library
Multicultural Counseling Applications for Improved Mental Healthcare Services
Profs. Anasuya Jegathevi Jegathesan (HELP University, Malaysia) and Siti Salina Abdullah (University Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia)

Copyright 2019 | Pages:302 | ISBN: 9781522560739| EISBN: 9781522560746

This title is an essential reference source that discusses techniques in addressing different religions and cultures in counseling and therapy. The research in this publication provides a platform and a voice for Eastern therapists to contribute to the body of knowledge and build a more robust therapeutic framework for practitioners worldwide. Featuring topics such as psychotherapy, refugee counseling, and women empowerment, this book is ideally designed for mental health professionals, counselors, therapists, clinical psychologists, sociologists, social workers, researchers, students, and social science academicians seeking coverage on significant advances in therapy, as well as the skills, challenges, and abilities that practitioners facing diverse populations must manage on a daily basis.




Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not reflect the views of IGI Global.


About IGI Global: Founded in 1988, IGI Global, an international academic publisher, is committed to producing the highest quality research (as an active full member of the Committee on Publication Ethics “COPE”) and ensuring the timely dissemination of innovative research findings through an expeditious and technologically advanced publishing process. Through their commitment to supporting the research community ahead of profitability, and taking a chance on virtually untapped topic coverage, IGI Global has been able to collaborate with over 100,000+ researchers from some of the most prominent research institutions around the world to publish the most emerging, peer-reviewed research across 350+ topics in 11 subject areas including business, computer science, education, engineering, social sciences, and more. To learn more about IGI Global, click here.


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