Entrepreneurship Culture of SMEs in India's Tourism Sector

Entrepreneurship Culture of SMEs in India's Tourism Sector

Neeta Baporikar (Namibia University of Science & Technology, Namibia & University of Pune, Pune, India)
DOI: 10.4018/IJSITA.2016040102
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Abstract

Travel and tourism is a promising service sector of this century. Tourism is one of the major forces for economic, social, and cultural change in any region and India is no exception. Tourism is the world's largest industry and a sector emphasized by many countries to advocate economic development. It is also used as a development strategy due to its economic effects of generating foreign exchange, creating employment and stimulating local economies. Yet, what has been lacking for many years is a study that reviews and analyses the entrepreneurship culture of SMEs especially in tourism sector. Due to emergent and new forms of tourism, there is an immense entrepreneurial opportunity which is a certainly breeding entrepreneurship culture. Focusing on India, this paper aims to do that, with an in-depth examination of emergent and new forms of tourism followed by entrepreneurial aspects in tourism. Though the discussion pertains to India; the lessons drawn could be applicable for all involved in the development of entrepreneurship and tourism.
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Literature Review

Tourism is the world’s largest industry (Scheyvens and Momsen, 2008). The human need and desire to travel has not changed over time however evolution through the ages has provided the tourism industry to grow and develop to meet the demands of tourists (McIntosh, et. al, 1995). Early modern times (1550-1950), particularly in the early 18th century has been revolutionary to the tourism industry. Henry Ford's introduction of the first automobile in 1908 not only saw the demand for better roads but ultimately changed the way and accessibility of travel (McIntosh et. al, 1995). The notion of war also motivated many technological advances that have assisted in the development and growth of the tourism industry (Hall, 2007). As a sector of the economy, tourism is used by many countries to advocate economic development. It is used as a development strategy due to its economic effects such as generating foreign exchange, creating employment and stimulating local economies (Sindiga, 1999). According to McKercher and Du Cros, 2002, few people really understand tourism, but that does not seem to stop them from commenting on it and telling willing audiences how tourism should work. However, one can clearly see that it was started on a very small scale. Most hospitality establishments like inns, motels, restaurants etc., were entirely managed by family members. This is how one of the world’s largest industries today had a humble beginning. Today, travel and tourism has become part of the people’s regular activity, for the economies worldwide the sector generates not only revenues but is also a great provider of employment. Approximately 77 million people are employed in the industry worldwide (Collier, 2006).

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