Adaptive Procedures for Efficient Learning

Adaptive Procedures for Efficient Learning

Slava Kalyuga (University of New South Wales, Australia)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-048-6.ch012
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Abstract

The rapid diagnostic approach to evaluating levels of learner task-specific expertise was introduced in Chapter IV and used in several studies that were subsequently described throughout this book. The rapid diagnostic techniques (first-step method and rapid verification technique) were instrumental in investigating some instances of the expertise reversal effect and in optimizing levels of cognitive load in faded worked example procedures (Section II and Chapter XI). This chapter describes some specific adaptive procedures based on rapid diagnostic methods for evaluating ongoing levels of learner task specific expertise. Two specific approaches to the design of adaptive instruction are considered, adaptive procedures based on rapid measures of performance and adaptive procedures based on combined measures of performance and cognitive load (efficiency measures). The expertise reversal effect established interactions between learner levels of task-specific expertise and effectiveness of different instructional methods. The major instructional implication of this effect is the need to tailor instructional methods and procedures to dynamically changing levels of learner expertise in a specific class of tasks within a domain. The rapid diagnostic approach was successfully used for real-time evaluation of levels of learner task-specific expertise in adaptive online tutorials in the domains of linear algebra equations (Kalyuga & Sweller, 2004; 2005) and vector addition motion problems in kinematics (Kalyuga, 2006) for high school students. Both first step diagnostic method and rapid verification technique were applied in adaptive procedures. According to the rapid assessment-based tailoring approach, these tutorials provided dynamic selection of levels of instructional guidance that were optimal for learners with different levels of expertise based on real-time online measures of these levels. The general designs of those studies were similar. In learner-adapted groups, at the beginning of training sessions, each student was provided with an appropriate level of instructional guidance according to the outcome of the initial rapid pretest. Then during the session, depending on the outcomes of the ongoing rapid tests, the student was allowed to proceed to the next learning stage or was required to repeat the same stage and then take the rapid test again. At each subsequent stage, a lower level of guidance was provided to learners (e.g., worked-out components of solution procedures were gradually omitted and progressively replaced with problem solving steps), and a higher level of the rapid diagnostic tasks was used at the end of the stage. In control non-adapted groups, learners either studied all tasks that were included in the corresponding stages of the training session of their yoked participants, or were required to study the whole set of tasks available in the tutorial.

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Slava Kalyuga
Table of Contents
Foreword
Richard E. Mayer
Chapter 1
Slava Kalyuga
One of the major components of our cognitive architecture, working memory, becomes overloaded if more than a few chunks of information are processed... Sample PDF
Human Cognitive Processes
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Chapter 2
Cognitive Load Theory  (pages 34-57)
Slava Kalyuga
Cognitive load theory is a learning and instruction theory that describes instructional design implications of human cognitive architecture outlined... Sample PDF
Cognitive Load Theory
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Chapter 3
Slava Kalyuga
Cognitive studies of expertise that were reviewed in Chapter I indicated that prior knowledge is the most important 1earner characteristic that... Sample PDF
The Expertise Reversal Effect
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Chapter 4
Slava Kalyuga
Main implication of the expertise reversal effect is the need to tailor instructional techniques and procedures to changing levels of learner... Sample PDF
Assessment of Task-Specific Expertise
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Chapter 5
Slava Kalyuga
Availability of valid and usable measures of cognitive load involved in learning is essential for providing support for cognitive load-based... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Cognitive Load
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Chapter 6
Slava Kalyuga
Chapter VI describes specific evidence-based methods for managing cognitive load in verbal and pictorial information representations. According to... Sample PDF
Managing Cognitive Load in Verbal and Pictorial Representations
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Chapter 7
Slava Kalyuga
Most sophisticated multimedia learning environments include various interactivity features. Interactive multimedia learning environments respond... Sample PDF
Managing Cognitive Load in Interactive Multimedia
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Chapter 8
Slava Kalyuga
According to dual-coding theory, when learning concrete concepts, adding pictorial representations could be superior to verbal-only descriptions... Sample PDF
Managing Cognitive Load in Dynamic Visual Representations
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Chapter 9
Slava Kalyuga
Instructional simulation and games are usually used as substitutes for actual equipment, processes, real-life problems, and social situations. They... Sample PDF
Optimizing Cognitive Load in Instructional Simulations and Games
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Chapter 10
Slava Kalyuga
Personalized adaptive multimedia environments provide individual learners or learner groups with experience that is specifically tailored to them.... Sample PDF
Tailoring Multimedia Environments to Learner Cognitive Characteristics
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Chapter 11
Slava Kalyuga
This chapter describes some specific adaptive procedures for tailoring levels of instructional guidance to individual levels of learner... Sample PDF
Adapting Levels of Instructional Support to Optimize Learning Complex Cognitive Skills
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Chapter 12
Slava Kalyuga
The rapid diagnostic approach to evaluating levels of learner task-specific expertise was introduced in Chapter IV and used in several studies that... Sample PDF
Adaptive Procedures for Efficient Learning
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Summary of Section I
Summary of Section II
Summary of Section II
General Conclusion
Glossary of Terms
About the Author