Applications of Artificial Immune Systems in Agents

Applications of Artificial Immune Systems in Agents

Luis Fernando Niño Vasquez (National University of Colombia, Colombia), Fredy Fernando Muñoz Mopan (National University of Colombia, Colombia), Camilo Eduardo Prieto Salazar (National University of Colombia, Colombia) and José Guillermo Guarnizo Marín (National University of Colombia, Colombia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-310-4.ch005
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Abstract

Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) have been widely used in different fields such as robotics, computer science, and multi-agent systems with high efficacy. This is a survey chapter within which single and multi-agent systems inspired by immunology concepts are presented and analyzed. Most of the work is usually based on the adaptive immune response characteristics, such as clonal selection, idiotypic networks, and negative selection. However, the innate immune response has been neglected and there is not much work where innate metaphors are used as inspiration source to develop robotic systems. Therefore, a work that involves some interesting features of the innate and adaptive immune responses in a cognitive model for object transportation is presented at the end of this chapter.
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Single And Multi Agent Systems Based On Immunology

In this section, some artificial immune systems in multi-agent systems and robotics are presented.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Clonal Selection Algorithm: The clonal selection theory has been used as inspiration for the development of AIS that perform computational optimization and pattern recognition tasks. In particular, inspiration has been taken from the antigen driven affinity maturation process of B-cells, with its associated hypermutation mechanism. These AIS also often utilize the idea of memory cells to retain good solutions to the problem being solved. Castro and Timmis highlight two important features of affinity maturation in B-cells that can be exploited from the computational viewpoint. The first of these is that the proliferation of B-cells is proportional to the affinity of the antigen that binds it, thus the higher the affinity, the more clones are produced. Secondly, the mutations suffered by the antibody of a B-cell are inversely proportional to the affinity of the antigen it binds. Utilizing these two features, de Castro and Von Zuben developed one of the most popular and widely used clonal selection inspired AIS called CLONAG, which has been used to performed the tasks of pattern matching and multi-modal function optimization

Immune Network Algorithm: The premise of immune network theory is that any lymphocyte receptor within an organism can be recognized by a subset of the total receptor repertoire. The receptors of this recognizing set have their own recognizing set and so on, thus an immune network of interactions is formed. Immune networks are often referred to as idiotypic networks. In the absence of foreign antigen, Jerne concluded that the immune system must display a behavior or activity resulting from interactions with itself and from these interactions immunological behavior such as tolerance and memory emerge

Negative Selection Algorithm: It is inspired by the main mechanism in the thymus that produces a set of mature T-cells capable of binding only non-self antigens. The starting point of this algorithm is to produce a set of self strings, S, that define the normal state of the system. The task then is to generate a set of detectors, D, that only bind/recognize the complement of S. These detectors can then be applied to new data in order to classify them as being self or non-self, thus in the case of the original work by Forrest, highlighting the fact that data has been manipulated

Single and Multi Agent System: When there is only one agent in a defined environment, it is named Single-Agent System (SAS). This agent acts and interacts only with its environment. If there are more than one agent and they interact with each other and their environment, the system is called Multi-Agent System

Artificial Immune Systems Algorithms: They are algorithms used in AIS which attempt to extract concepts from natural immune system.

Cognitive Model: A cognitive model may comprise a “circle & arrow theory” of how some aspect of cognition is structured (e.g. information processing stages), or a set of equations with the proper input-output specifications and some internal structure that is believed to represent some aspect of cognition. In studying a cognitive model, one considers issues such as predictive power and model uniqueness. In other words, one examines whether the model can foresee any traits of the aspect of cognition it claims to govern, and also whether success of the model logically excludes other possible models with the proper I/O mapping

Adaptive Immune Response: The antigen-specific response of T and B cells. It includes antibody production and the killing of pathogen-infected cells, and is regulated by cytokines such as interferon-alfa. The immune cells are able to learn and improve immune defenses when they encounter the same pathogen several times. This is based on the concept of “memory” in certain immune cells such as T and B cells

Agent: A computer system, situated in some environment, that is capable of flexible autonomous action in order to meet its design objectives. The flexible autonomous action means the ability to act without the direct intervention of humans and they are capable to perceive their environment and response to changes to occur in it

Innate Immune Response: It responses to certain general targets very quickly. This response is crucial during the early phase of host defence against infection by pathogens, before the antigen-specific adaptive immune response is induced

Immune System: A body system that is made up of specialized cells that keep you healthy. It works by getting rid of organisms that cause infections.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Lipo Wang
Preface
Hongwei Mo
Chapter 1
Fabio Freschi, Carlos A. Coello Coello, Maurizio Repetto
This chapter aims to review the state of the art in algorithms of multiobjective optimization with artificial immune systems (MOAIS). As it will be... Sample PDF
Multiobjective Optimization and Artificial Immune Systems: A Review
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Chapter 2
Jun Chen, Mahdi Mahfouf
The primary objective of this chapter is to introduce Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) as a relatively new bio-inspired optimization technique and to... Sample PDF
Artificial Immune Systems as a Bio-Inspired Optimization Technique and Its Engineering Applications
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Chapter 3
Licheng Jiao, Maoguo Gong, Wenping Ma
Many immue-inspired algorithms are based on the abstractions of one or several immunology theories, such as clonal selection, negative selection... Sample PDF
An Artificial Immune Dynamical System for Optimization
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Chapter 4
Malgorzata Lucinska, Slawomir T. Wierzchon
Multi-agent systems (MAS), consist of a number of autonomous agents, which interact with one-another. To make such interactions successful, they... Sample PDF
An Immune Inspired Algorithm for Learning Strategies in a Pursuit-Evasion Game
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Chapter 5
Luis Fernando Niño Vasquez, Fredy Fernando Muñoz Mopan, Camilo Eduardo Prieto Salazar, José Guillermo Guarnizo Marín
Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) have been widely used in different fields such as robotics, computer science, and multi-agent systems with high... Sample PDF
Applications of Artificial Immune Systems in Agents
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Chapter 6
Xingquan Zuo
Inspired from the robust control principle, a robust scheduling method is proposed to solve uncertain scheduling problems. The uncertain scheduling... Sample PDF
An Immune Algorithm Based Robust Scheduling Methods
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Chapter 7
Fabio Freschi, Maurizio Repetto
The increasing cost of energy and the introduction of micro-generation facilities and the changes in energy production systems require new... Sample PDF
Artificial Immune System in the Management of Complex Small Scale Cogeneration Systems
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Chapter 8
Krzysztof Ciesielski, Mieczyslaw A. Klopotek, Slawomir T. Wierzchon
In this chapter the authors discuss an application of an immune-based algorithm for extraction and visualization of clusters structure in large... Sample PDF
Applying the Immunological Network Concept to Clustering Document Collections
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Chapter 9
Xiangrong Zhang, Fang Liu
The problem of feature selection is fundamental in various tasks like classification, data mining, image processing, conceptual learning, and so on.... Sample PDF
Feature Selection Based on Clonal Selection Algorithm: Evaluation and Application
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Chapter 10
Yong-Sheng Ding, Xiang-Feng Zhang, Li-Hong Ren
Future Internet should be capable of extensibility, survivability, mobility, and adaptability to the changes of different users and network... Sample PDF
Immune Based Bio-Network Architecture and its Simulation Platform for Future Internet
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Chapter 11
Tao Gong
Static Web immune system is an important applicatiion of artificial immune system, and it is also a good platform to develop new immune computing... Sample PDF
A Static Web Immune System and Its Robustness Analysis
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Chapter 12
Alexander O. Tarakanov
Based on mathematical models of immunocomputing, this chapter describes an approach to spatio-temporal forecast (STF) by intelligent signal... Sample PDF
Immunocomputing for Spatio-Temporal Forecast
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Chapter 13
Fu Dongmei
In engineering application, the characteristics of the control system are entirely determined by the system controller once the controlled object... Sample PDF
Research of Immune Controllers
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Chapter 14
Xiaojun Bi
In fact, image segmentation can be regarded as a constrained optimization problem, and a series of optimization strategies can be used to complete... Sample PDF
Immune Programming Applications in Image Segmentation
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Chapter 15
Xin Wang, Wenjian Luo, Zhifang Li, Xufa Wang
A hardware immune system for the error detection of MC8051 IP core is designed in this chapter. The binary string to be detected by the hardware... Sample PDF
A Hardware Immune System for MC8051 IP Core
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Chapter 16
Mark Burgin, Eugene Eberbach
There are different models of evolutionary computations: genetic algorithms, genetic programming, etc. This chapter presents mathematical... Sample PDF
On Foundations of Evolutionary Computation: An Evolutionary Automata Approach
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Chapter 17
Terrence P. Fries
Path planning is an essential component in the control software for an autonomous mobile robot. Evolutionary strategies are employed to determine... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Path Planning for Robot Navigation Under Varying Terrain Conditions
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Chapter 18
Konstantinos Konstantinidis, Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis, Ioannis Andreadis
The aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with a Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system which incorporates AI through ant colony... Sample PDF
Ant Colony Optimization for Use in Content Based Image Retrieval
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Chapter 19
Miroslav Bursa, Lenka Lhotska
The chapter concentrates on the use of swarm intelligence in data mining. It focuses on the problem of medical data clustering. Clustering is a... Sample PDF
Ant Colonies and Data Mining
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Chapter 20
Bo-Suk Yang
This chapter describes a hybrid artificial life optimization algorithm (ALRT) based on emergent colonization to compute the solutions of global... Sample PDF
Artificial Life Optimization Algorithm and Applications
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Chapter 21
Martin Macaš, Lenka Lhotská
A novel binary optimization technique is introduced called Social Impact Theory based Optimizer (SITO), which is based on social psychology model of... Sample PDF
Optimizing Society: The Social Impact Theory Based Optimizer
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Chapter 22
James F. Peters, Shabnam Shahfar
The problem considered in this chapter is how to use the observed behavior of organisms as a basis for machine learning. The proposed approach for... Sample PDF
Ethology-Based Approximate Adaptive Learning: A Near Set Approach
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Chapter 23
Dingju Zhu
Parallel computing is more and more important for science and engineering, but it is not used so widely as serial computing. People are used to... Sample PDF
Nature Inspired Parallel Computing
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Chapter 24
Tang Mo, Wang Kejun, Zhang Jianmin, Zheng Liying
An understanding of the human brain’s local function has improved in recent years. But the cognition of human brain’s working process as a whole is... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Chaotic Neural Networks
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About the Contributors