CBM Elements VI

CBM Elements VI

Patricia A. Young (University of Maryland at Baltimore, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-426-2.ch012
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Abstract

This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the psychology of culture. All of the design factors related to psychology are covered. This section, the psychology of culture, draws from cognitive anthropology and cultural psychology that focus on cognitive, psychological, and social realms. Culture affects the psychology of human existence (D’Andrade, 1995) in its ability to configure the mind of human beings. Human beings use their minds to negotiate and make sense of the world. Whether part of a society, culture, or group, human beings search for shared meanings with others and an understanding of self. These meanings are best understood in their cultural contexts; therefore, culture is at the core of creating, understanding, and being human (Bruner, 1996).
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The Psychology Of Culture

  • Cultural beliefs & values

  • Cultural experiences

  • Cultural ideas

  • Cultural identity

  • Cultural interests

  • Cultural misconceptions

  • Cultural ways

This section, the psychology of culture, draws from cognitive anthropology and cultural psychology that focus on cognitive, psychological, and social realms. Culture affects the psychology of human existence (D’Andrade, 1995) in its ability to configure the mind of human beings. Human beings use their minds to negotiate and make sense of the world. Whether part of a society, culture, or group, human beings search for shared meanings with others and an understanding of self. These meanings are best understood in their cultural contexts; therefore, culture is at the core of creating, understanding, and being human (Bruner, 1996).

In psychology, models of culture focus on explaining processes of the mind (D’Andrade, 1990; Quinn, 1987; Schank & Abelson, 1977). Similarly, the psychology of culture examines what is going on in individuals’ mind that influences their actions (D’Andrade, 1995). Exploring the psychology and cognition of individuals assists in framing experiences, providing meaning to experiences, exploring the reasoning process, and understanding the outcomes of behavior (Quinn & Holland, 1987).

The psychology of culture also presupposes that the individual is a transporter of culture. (D’Andrade, 1990). This means that, among individuals, there is great variability in terms of how they function psychologically. In measuring these items, those with the most frequent consistency can be treated as representative of the group’s culture. Therefore, items can be determined to be shared by the group or unique to the individual or group (D’Andrade, 1990).

Schema is shared knowledge. Among groups, there are shared cognitive schemas or understandings. These shared cognitive schemas are obvious but only to members of the group. For example a television announcer yells, “Touchdown!” This means that a football team has scored, except this has little meaning to individuals who do not understand football. Information shared among a group is not made explicit because the knowledge is already known (D’Andrade, 1990, 1987). This means that target audiences will have shared knowledge and information that is understood only by members of their group.

D’Andrade’s (1990, 1995) folk model of the mind proposes that humans notice their mental states and processes; this, in turn, influences behavior. One of the characteristics of a mental state is the principle of cause; this means “certain events are thought to bring about other events” (D’Andrade, 1987, p. 117). This means that what a human sees, hears, tastes, smells, and feels is caused by events and things outside the mind. Inside the mind of a human what they believe, remember, or know is processed in the mind. Therefore, mental states and processes happen internally (inside) and/or externally (outside) of the mind. In looking at CBM Elements, several design factors could be categorized as having properties of a mental state or process. See Table 1.

Table 1.
CBM ElementInside/outside of the mind
    Cultural beliefs    Inside the mind
    Cultural values    Inside & outside the mind
    Cultural experiences    Inside the mind
    Cultural ideas    Inside the mind
    Cultural identity    Inside the mind
    Cultural interests    Inside the mind
    Cultural misconceptions    Inside the mind
    Cultural ways    Inside & outside the mind

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Foreword
Rita C. Richey
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Patricia A. Young
If the history of the world is properly searched, the birth of innovation in learning theory as a practice and psychology as a science can be found... Sample PDF
Beginnings in Instructional Design and Culture
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Chapter 2
Patricia A. Young
There have been many definitions of culture hypothesized by theorists and scholars as a way to understand human beings, other species and entities;... Sample PDF
The Nature of Culture in Design
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Chapter 3
Patricia A. Young
The incorporation of culture in the design process is not a simple task. It is one with multiple layers of depth and complexity. But it is also not... Sample PDF
The Culture-Based Model Framework
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Chapter 4
Patricia A. Young
Inquiry (11-16) monitors development, automates the internal flow of the design process, and functions as internal sensors. This monitoring checks... Sample PDF
CBM Inquiry, Development
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Chapter 5
Patricia A. Young
Team (T1–T3) focuses on the recruitment of a culturally sensitive design team that includes a cultural expert, an educator, and other culturally... Sample PDF
CBM Team, Assessments, Brainstorming
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Chapter 6
CBM Learners  (pages 88-99)
Patricia A. Young
The Learners (L1-L10) area centers on the needs of learners and learning. These design factors assist in providing a dynamic learning environment... Sample PDF
CBM Learners
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Chapter 7
CBM Elements I  (pages 100-125)
Patricia A. Young
Elements (E1-E25) facilitate content development. These Elements are intended to be comprehensive in providing the fundamental total of which all... Sample PDF
CBM Elements I
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Chapter 8
CBM Elements II  (pages 126-141)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural communications is covered in its... Sample PDF
CBM Elements II
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Chapter 9
CBM Elements III  (pages 142-173)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural demographics and Cultural... Sample PDF
CBM Elements III
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Chapter 10
CBM Elements IV  (pages 174-214)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural history is covered in its entirety.... Sample PDF
CBM Elements IV
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Chapter 11
CBM Elements V  (pages 215-231)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural knowledge, Cultural language... Sample PDF
CBM Elements V
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Chapter 12
CBM Elements VI  (pages 232-253)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the psychology of culture. All of the design factors related to... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VI
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Chapter 13
CBM Elements VII  (pages 254-278)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the science of culture. The following design factors are covered in this... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VII
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Chapter 14
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the science of culture. The following design factors are covered in this... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VII & Training
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Chapter 15
Patricia A. Young
Instructional design includes the production of educational products such as software, Web-based environments, video games, videos, films, and print... Sample PDF
Case Study of an Educational Product
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Chapter 16
Case Study in Game Design  (pages 316-330)
Patricia A. Young
The global game industry expects substantial growth in the next decades. Massive multiplayer online games (MMOG) are expected to skyrocket from the... Sample PDF
Case Study in Game Design
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Chapter 17
Case Study in E-Learning  (pages 331-341)
Patricia A. Young
The future of e-learning is wide open in terms of innovations in software, hardware, instructional content, and teaching practices. Recent... Sample PDF
Case Study in E-Learning
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Chapter 18
Case Study in Research  (pages 342-358)
Patricia A. Young
Research is seen as a bad word, more work and lots more money. However, research is a good thing to do and engage in before, during and after... Sample PDF
Case Study in Research
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Chapter 19
Conclusion  (pages 359-364)
Patricia A. Young
Culture works as a design construct. It is apparent that there are many factors operating to make this happen. First, the nature of culture in... Sample PDF
Conclusion
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About the Author