Clustering Algorithm for Arbitrary Data Sets

Clustering Algorithm for Arbitrary Data Sets

Yu-Chen Song (Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, China) and Hai-Dong Meng (Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, China)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 7
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-849-9.ch046
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Clustering analysis is an intrinsic component of numerous applications, including pattern recognition, life sciences, image processing, web data analysis, earth sciences, and climate research. As an example, consider the biology domain. In any living cell that undergoes a biological process, different subsets of its genes are expressed in different stages of the process. To facilitate a deeper understanding of these processes, a clustering algorithm was developed (Ben- Dor, Shamir, & Yakhini, 1999) that enabled detailed analysis of gene expression data. Recent advances in proteomics technologies, such as two-hybrid, phage display and mass spectrometry, have enabled the creation of detailed maps of biomolecular interaction networks. To further understanding in this area, a clustering mechanism that detects densely connected regions in large protein-protein interaction networks that may represent molecular complexes was constructed (Bader & Hogue, 2003). In the interpretation of remote sensing images, clustering algorithms (Sander, Ester, Kriegel, & Xu, 1998) have been employed to recognize and understand the content of such images. In the management of web directories, document annotation is an important task. Given a predefined taxonomy, the objective is to identify a category related to the content of an unclassified document. Self-Organizing Maps have been harnessed to influence the learning process with knowledge encoded within a taxonomy (Adami, Avesani, & Sona, 2005). Earth scientists are interested in discovering areas of the ocean that have a demonstrable effect on climatic events on land, and the SNN clustering technique (Ertöz, Steinbach, & Kumar, 2002) is one example of a technique that has been adopted in this domain. Also, scientists have developed climate indices, which are time series that summarize the behavior of selected regions of the Earth’s oceans and atmosphere. Clustering techniques have proved crucial in the production of climate indices (Steinbach, Tan, Kumar, Klooster, & Potter, 2003). In many application domains, clusters of data are of arbitrary shape, size and density, and the number of clusters is unknown. In such scenarios, traditional clustering algorithms, including partitioning methods, hierarchical methods, density-based methods and gridbased methods, cannot identify clusters efficiently or accurately. Obviously, this is a critical limitation. In the following sections, a number of clustering methods are presented and discussed, after which the design of an algorithm based on Density and Density-reachable (CADD) is presented. CADD seeks to remedy some of the deficiencies of classical clustering approaches by robustly clustering data that is of arbitrary shape, size, and density in an effective and efficient manner.
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Clustering aims to identify groups of objects (clusters) that satisfy some specific criteria, or share some common attribute. Clustering is a rich and diverse domain, and many concepts have been developed as the understanding of clustering develops and matures (Tan, Steinbach, & Kumar, 2006). As an example, consider spatial distribution. A typology of clusters based on this includes: Well-separated clusters, Center-based clusters, Contiguity-based clusters, and Density-based clusters. Given the diversity of domains in which clustering can be applied, and the diverse characteristic and requirements of each, it is not surprising that numerous clustering algorithms have been developed. The interested reader is referred to the academic literature (Qiu, Zhang, & Shen, 2005), (Ertöz, Steinbach, & Kumar, 2003), (Zhao, Song, Xie, & Song, 2003), (Ayad & Kamel, 2003), (Karypis, Han, & Kumar, 1999) for further information.

Though the range of clustering algorithms that have been developed is broad, it is posisble to classify them according the broad approach or method adopted by each:

Key Terms in this Chapter

Contiguity-Based Clusters: Each object in a contiguity-based cluster is closer to some other object in the cluster than to any point in a different cluster.

Centre-Based Clusters: Each object in a centre-based cluster is closer to the centre of the cluster than to the centres of any other clusters.

Density-Based Clusters: Each object in a density-based cluster is closer to some other object within its Eps neighbourhood than to any object not in the cluster, resulting in dense regions of objects being surrounded by regions of lower density.

CADD: A clustering algorithm based on the concepts of Density and Density-reachable.

Cluster Analysis: Cluster analysis groups data objects based only on information found in the data that describes the objects and their relationships.

Well-Separated Cluster: A cluster is a set of objects in which each object is significantly closer (or more similar) to every other object in the cluster than to any object not in the cluster.

Eps: Maximum radius of the neighbourhood.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Jun Jiang, Horace H.S. Ip
Jiang, Jun; IP Horace H. S. With the increasing demand of multimedia information retrieval, such as image and video retrieval from the Web, there is... Sample PDF
Active Learning with SVM
Chapter 2
M. L. Gavrilova
This chapter spans topics from such important areas as Artificial Intelligence, Computational Geometry and Biometric Technologies. The primary focus... Sample PDF
Adaptive Algorithms for Intelligent Geometric Computing
Chapter 3
Zbigniew Michalewicz
Since the computer age dawned on mankind, one of the most important areas in information technology has been that of “decision support.” Today, this... Sample PDF
Adaptive Business Intelligence
Chapter 4
Radu Mutihac
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) (McCulloch & Pitts, 1943) (Haykin, 1999) were developed as models of their biological counterparts aiming to... Sample PDF
Adaptive Neural Algorithms for PCA and ICA
Chapter 5
Larbi Esmahi, Kristian Williamson, Elarbi Badidi
Fuzzy logic became the core of a different approach to computing. Whereas traditional approaches to computing were precise, or hard edged, fuzzy... Sample PDF
Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Systems
Chapter 6
João José Neto
Before the advent of software engineering, the lack of memory space in computers and the absence of established programming methodologies led early... Sample PDF
Adaptive Technology and Its Applications
Chapter 7
J. Álvaro Fernández
Since its introduction to the research community in 1988, the Cellular Neural Network (CNN) (Chua & Yang, 1988) paradigm has become a fruitful soil... Sample PDF
Advanced Cellular Neural Networks Image Processing
Chapter 8
Zaiyong Tang, Xiaoyu Huang, Kallol Bagchi
An intelligent system is a system that has, similar to a living organism, a coherent set of components and subsystems working together to engage in... Sample PDF
Agent-Based Intelligent System Modeling
Chapter 9
Lester Ingber
A briefing (Allen, 2004) demonstrates the breadth and depth complexity required to address real diplomatic, information, military, economic (DIME)... Sample PDF
AI and Ideas by Statistical Mechanics
Chapter 10
Amira Djebbari, Aedín C. Culhane, Alice J. Armstrong, John Quackenbush
Biological systems can be viewed as information management systems, with a basic instruction set stored in each cell’s DNA as “genes.” For most... Sample PDF
AI Methods for Analyzing Microarray Data
Chapter 11
José D. Martín-Guerrero, Emilio Soria-Olivas, Paulo J.G. Lisboa, Antonio J. Serrano-López
This work is intended for providing a review of reallife practical applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods. We focus on the use of... Sample PDF
An AI Walk from Pharmacokinetics to Marketing
Chapter 12
Vasudha Bhatnagar, Anamika Gupta, Naveen Kumar
Association Rule Mining (ARM) is one of the important data mining tasks that has been extensively researched by data-mining community and has found... Sample PDF
Algorithms for Association Rule Mining
Chapter 13
Ambient Intelligence  (pages 85-91)
Fariba Sadri, Kostas Stathis
In recent years much research and development effort has been directed towards the broad field of ambient intelligence (AmI), and this trend is set... Sample PDF
Ambient Intelligence
Chapter 14
Carlos Ramos
The trend in the direction of hardware cost reduction and miniaturization allows including computing devices in several objects and environments... Sample PDF
Ambient Intelligence Environments
Chapter 15
Shourya Roy, L. Venkata Subramaniam
Accdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in what oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is that the... Sample PDF
Analytics for Noisy Unstructured Text Data I
Chapter 16
L. Venkata Subramaniam, Shourya Roy
The importance of text mining applications is growing proportionally with the exponential growth of electronic text. Along with the growth of... Sample PDF
Analytics for Noisy Unstructured Text Data II
Chapter 17
Francisco J. Nóvoa, Alberto Curra, M. Gloria López, Virginia Mato
Heart-related pathologies are among the most frequent health problems in western society. Symptoms that point towards cardiovascular diseases are... Sample PDF
Angiographic Images Segmentation Techniques
Chapter 18
Juan L. Pérez, Mª Isabel Martínez, Manuel F. Herrador
Artificial Intelligence (AI) mechanisms are more and more frequently applied to all sorts of civil engineering problems. New methods and algorithms... Sample PDF
ANN Application in the Field of Structural Concrete
Chapter 19
Daniel Rivero, Juan Rabuñal
Among all of the Artificial Intelligence techniques, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have shown to be a very powerful tool (McCulloch & Pitts... Sample PDF
ANN Development with EC Tools: An Overview
Chapter 20
Matthieu Voiry, Véronique Amarger, Joel Bernier, Kurosh Madani
A major step for high-quality optical devices faults diagnosis concerns scratches and digs defects detection and characterization in products. These... Sample PDF
ANN-Based Defects' Diagnosis of Industrial Optical Devices
Chapter 21
Eduardo Sánchez, Manuel Lama
Governments and institutions are facing the new demands of a rapidly changing society. Among many significant trends, some facts should be... Sample PDF
Artificial Intelligence and Education
Chapter 22
Gregorio Iglesias Rodriguez, Alberte Castro Ponte, Rodrigo Carballo Sanchez, Miguel Ángel Losada Rodriguez
Breakwaters are coastal structures constructed to shelter a harbour basin from waves. There are two main types: rubble-mound breakwaters, consisting... Sample PDF
Artificial Intelligence and Rubble-Mound Breakwater Stability
Chapter 23
Thomas Mandl
This article describes the most prominent approaches to apply artificial intelligence technologies to information retrieval (IR). Information... Sample PDF
Artificial Intelligence for Information Retrieval
Chapter 24
Paulo Eduardo Ambrósio
Professionals of the medical radiology area depend directly on the process of decision making in their daily activities. This process is mainly... Sample PDF
Artificial Intelligence in Computer-Aided Diagnosis
Chapter 25
Amanda J.C. Sharkey
In their heyday, artificial neural networks promised a radically new approach to cognitive modelling. The connectionist approach spawned a number of... Sample PDF
Artificial Neural Networks and Cognitive Modelling
Chapter 26
Ana Belén Porto Pazos, Alberto Alvarellos González, Félix Montañés Pazos
More than 50 years ago connectionist systems (CSs) were created with the purpose to process information in the computers like the human brain... Sample PDF
Artificial NeuroGlial Networks
Chapter 27
Association Rule Mining  (pages 172-178)
Vasudha Bhatnagar, Sarabjeet Kochhar
Data mining is a field encompassing study of the tools and techniques to assist humans in intelligently analyzing (mining) mountains of data. Data... Sample PDF
Association Rule Mining
Chapter 28
Automated Cryptanalysis  (pages 179-185)
Otokar Grošek, Pavol Zajac
Classical ciphers are used to encrypt plaintext messages written in a natural language in such a way that they are readable for sender or intended... Sample PDF
Automated Cryptanalysis
Chapter 29
Otokar Grošek, Pavol Zajac
Classical ciphers are used to encrypt plaintext messages written in a natural language in such a way that they are readable for sender or intended... Sample PDF
Automated Cryptanalysis of Classical Ciphers
Chapter 30
Addisson Salazar, Arturo Serrano
We investigate the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to the classification of spectra from impact-echo signals. In this paper we... Sample PDF
Automatic Classification of Impact-Echo Spectra I
Chapter 31
Addisson Salazar, Arturo Serrano
We study the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to the classification of spectra from impact-echo signals. In this paper we focus on... Sample PDF
Automatic Classification of Impact-Echo Spectra II
Chapter 32
Girolamo Fornarelli, Antonio Giaquinto
The defect detection on manufactures is of utmost importance in the optimization of industrial processes (Garcia 2005). In fact, the industrial... Sample PDF
AVI of Surface Flaws on Manufactures I
Chapter 33
Girolamo Fornarelli, Antonio Giaquinto
Automatic visual inspection takes a relevant place in defect detection of industrial production. In this field a fundamental role is played by... Sample PDF
AVI of Surface Flaws on Manufactures II
Chapter 34
J. Álvaro Fernández
Since its seminal publication in 1988, the Cellular Neural Network (CNN) (Chua & Yang, 1988) paradigm have attracted research community’s attention... Sample PDF
Basic Cellular Neural Networks Image Processing
Chapter 35
Radu Mutihac
Numerical methods commonly employed to convert experimental data into interpretable images and spectra commonly rely on straightforward transforms... Sample PDF
Bayesian Neural Networks for Image Restoration
Chapter 36
María José Castro-Bleda, Slavador España-Boquera, Francisco Zamora-Martínez
The field of off-line optical character recognition (OCR) has been a topic of intensive research for many years (Bozinovic, 1989; Bunke, 2003;... Sample PDF
Behaviour-Based Clustering of Neural Networks
Chapter 37
José Antonio Seoane Fernández, Mónica Miguélez Rico
Large worldwide projects like the Human Genome Project, which in 2003 successfully concluded the sequencing of the human genome, and the recently... Sample PDF
Bio-Inspired Algorithms in Bioinformatics I
Chapter 38
José Antonio Seoane Fernández, Mónica Miguélez Rico
Our previous article presented several computational models inspired on biological models, such as neural networks, evolutionary computation, swarm... Sample PDF
Bio-Inspired Algorithms in Bioinformatics II
Chapter 39
Roberto A. Vazquez, Humberto Sossa
An associative memory AM is a special kind of neural network that allows recalling one output pattern given an input pattern as a key that might be... Sample PDF
Bioinspired Associative Memories
Chapter 40
Manuel G. Bedia, Juan M. Corchado, Luis F. Castillo
The knowledge about higher brain centres in insects and how they affect the insect’s behaviour has increased significantly in recent years by... Sample PDF
Bio-Inspired Dynamical Tools for Analyzing Cognition
Chapter 41
Marcos Faundez-Zanuy
The word biometrics comes from the Greek words “bios” (life) and “metrikos” (measure). Strictly speaking, it refers to a science involving the... Sample PDF
Biometric Security Technology
Chapter 42
Miguel A. Ferrer, Aday Tejera Santana
This work presents a brief introduction to the blind source separation using independent component analysis (ICA) techniques. The main objective of... Sample PDF
Blind Source Separation by ICA
Chapter 43
Chaotic Neural Networks  (pages 275-281)
Emilio Del-Moral-Hernandez
Artificial Neural Networks have proven, along the last four decades, to be an important tool for modelling of the functional structures of the... Sample PDF
Chaotic Neural Networks
Chapter 44
Óscar Pérez, Manuel Sánchez-Montañés
Machine learning has provided powerful algorithms that automatically generate predictive models from experience. One specific technique is... Sample PDF
Class Prediction in Test Sets with Shifted Distributions
Chapter 45
Alan Wee-Chung Liew, Ngai-Fong Law, Hong Yan
Important insights into gene function can be gained by gene expression analysis. For example, some genes are turned on (expressed) or turned off... Sample PDF
Cluster Analysis of Gene Expression Data
Chapter 46
Yu-Chen Song, Hai-Dong Meng
Clustering analysis is an intrinsic component of numerous applications, including pattern recognition, life sciences, image processing, web data... Sample PDF
Clustering Algorithm for Arbitrary Data Sets
Chapter 47
Atiq Islam, Khan M. Iftekharuddin, E. Olusegun George, David J. Russomanno
Automated diagnosis and prognosis of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) offer overwhelming challenges because of heterogeneous phenotype and... Sample PDF
CNS Tumor Prediction Using Gene Expression Data Part I
Chapter 48
Atiq Islam, Khan M. Iftekharuddin, E. Olusegun George, David J. Russomanno
In this chapter, we propose a novel algorithm for characterizing a variety of CNS tumors. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with an analysis of... Sample PDF
CNS Tumor Prediction Using Gene Expression Data Part II
Chapter 49
Lei Xu, Shun-ichi Amari
Expert combination is a classic strategy that has been widely used in various problem solving tasks. A team of individuals with diverse and... Sample PDF
Combining Classifiers and Learning Mixture-of-Experts
Chapter 50
Phillip Ein-Dor
Significant advances in artificial intelligence, including machines that play master level chess, or make medical diagnoses, highlight an intriguing... Sample PDF
Commonsense Knowledge Representation I
Chapter 51
Phillip Ein-Dor
Early attempts to implement systems that understand commonsense knowledge did so for very restricted domains. For example, the Planes system [Waltz... Sample PDF
Commonsense Knowledge Representation II
Chapter 52
Shaista Rashid, Dimitris Rigas
In all walks of life individuals are involved in a cumulative and incremental process of knowledge acquisition. This involves the accessing... Sample PDF
A Comparative Study on E-Note-Taking
Chapter 53
José Fernando Díaz Martín, Jesús M. Riaño Sierra
Simulated annealing is one of the most important metaheuristics or general-purpose algorithms of combinatorial optimization, whose properties of... Sample PDF
A Comparison of Cooling Schedules for Simulated Annealing
Chapter 54
Jirí Kroc, Peter M.A. Sloot
In recent years, the notion of complex systems proved to be a very useful concept to define, describe, and study various natural phenomena observed... Sample PDF
Complex Systems Modeling by Cellular Automata
Chapter 55
Tohru Nitta
The usual real-valued artificial neural networks have been applied to various fields such as telecommunications, robotics, bioinformatics, image... Sample PDF
Complex-Valued Neural Networks
Chapter 56
Oscar Déniz Suárez, Gloria Bueno García
The typical recognition/classification framework in Artificial Vision uses a set of object features for discrimination. Features can be either... Sample PDF
Component Analysis in Artificial Vision
Chapter 57
Michele Piana
Biomedical imaging represents a practical and conceptual revolution in the applied sciences of the last thirty years. Two basic ingredients... Sample PDF
Computational Methods in Biomedical Imaging
Chapter 58
Enrique Fernández-Blanco, Julián Dorado de la Calle
Applying biological concepts to create new models in the computational field is not a revolutionary idea: science has already been the basis for the... Sample PDF
Computer Morphogenesis in Self-Organizing Structures
Chapter 59
Óscar Ibáñez, Juan Ramón Rabuñal Dopico
During the past several decades, a number of attempts have been made to contain oil slicks (or any surface contaminants) in the open sea by means of... Sample PDF
Computer Vision for Wave Flume Experiments
Chapter 60
Antonio Eleuteri, Azzam Taktak, Bertil Damato, Angela Douglas, Sarah Coupland
Survival analysis is used when we wish to study the occurrence of some event in a population of subjects and the time until the event of interest.... Sample PDF
Conditional Hazard Estimating Neural Networks
Chapter 61
Configuration  (pages 396-403)
Luca Anselma, Diego Magro
Configuring means selecting and bringing together a set of given components to produce an aggregate (or a set of aggregates) satisfying some... Sample PDF
Chapter 62
Constraint Processing  (pages 404-409)
Roman Barták
Constraints appear in many areas of human endeavour starting from puzzles like crosswords (the words can only overlap at the same letter) and... Sample PDF
Constraint Processing
Chapter 63
Wei-Chiang Samuelson Hong
The effective capacity of inter-urban motorway networks is an essential component of traffic control and information systems, particularly during... Sample PDF
Continuous ACO in a SVR Traffic Forecasting Model
Chapter 64
John Wang, Qiyang Chen, James Yao
Data mining is the process of extracting previously unknown information from large databases or data warehouses and using it to make crucial... Sample PDF
Data Mining Fundamental Concepts and Critical Issues
Chapter 65
James Yao, John Wang
Information systems were developed in early 1960s to process orders, billings, inventory controls, payrolls, and accounts payables. Soon information... Sample PDF
Data Warehousing Development and Design Methodologies
Chapter 66
Mats Danielson, Love Ekenberg
There are several ways of building complex distributed software systems, for example in the form of software agents. But regardless of the form... Sample PDF
Decision Making in Intelligent Agents
Chapter 67
Man Wai Lee, Kyriacos Chrysostomou, Sherry Y. Chen, Xiaohui Liu
Many organisations, nowadays, have developed their own databases, in which a large amount of valuable information, e.g., customers’ personal... Sample PDF
Decision Tree Applications for Data Modelling
Chapter 68
Malcolm J. Beynon
The initial work introducing Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory is found in Dempster (1967) and Shafer (1976). Since its introduction the very name causes... Sample PDF
The Dempster-Shafer Theory
Chapter 69
Ruket Çakici
Annotated data have recently become more important, and thus more abundant, in computational linguistics . They are used as training material for... Sample PDF
Dependency Parsing: Recent Advances
Chapter 70
M. Mohammadian
Systems such as robotic systems and systems with large input-output data tend to be difficult to model using mathematical techniques. These systems... Sample PDF
Designing Unsupervised Hierarchical Fuzzy Logic Systems
Chapter 71
Developmental Robotics  (pages 464-470)
Max Lungarella, Gabriel Gómez
Human intelligence is acquired through a prolonged period of maturation and growth during which a single fertilized egg first turns into an embryo... Sample PDF
Developmental Robotics
Chapter 72
Valeriu Beiu, Walid Ibrahim, Sanja Lazarova-Molnar
This chapter starts from an exact gate-level reliability analysis of von Neumann multiplexing using majority gates of increasing fan-ins (? = 3, 5... Sample PDF
Device-Level Majority von Neumann Multiplexing
Chapter 73
José M. Cadenas, Ma Carmen Garrido, Enrique Muñoz, Carlos Cruz-Corona, David A. Pelta, José L. Verdegay
Working on artificial intelligence, one of the tasks we can carry on is optimization of the possible solutions of a problem. Optimization problems... Sample PDF
Different Approaches for Cooperation with Metaheuristics
Chapter 74
Janez Brest
Many practical engineering applications can be formulated as a global optimization problem, in which objective function has many local minima, and... Sample PDF
Differential Evolution with Self-Adaptation
Chapter 75
Vikram Sorathia, Anutosh Maitra
Knowledge Representation is important part of AI. The purpose is to reveal best possible representation of the Universe of Discourse (UoD) by... Sample PDF
Discovering Mappings Between Ontologies
Chapter 76
Disk-Based Search  (pages 501-506)
Stefan Edelkamp, Shahid Jabbar
The need to deal with large data sets is at the heart of many real-world problems. In many organizations the data size has already surpassed... Sample PDF
Disk-Based Search
Chapter 77
Marius C. Silaghi, Makoto Yokoo
Distributed constraint reasoning is concerned with modeling and solving naturally distributed problems. It has application to the coordination and... Sample PDF
Distributed Constraint Reasoning
Chapter 78
Simon D. Levy
AI models are often categorized in terms of the connectionist vs. symbolic distinction. In addition to being descriptively unhelpful, these terms... Sample PDF
Distributed Representation of Compositional Structure
Chapter 79
Gilles Lebrun, Olivier Lezoray, Christopher Charrier, Hubert Cardot
Evolutionary algorithms (EA) (Rechenberg, 1965) belong to a family of stochastic search algorithms inspired by natural evolution. In the last years... Sample PDF
EA Multi-Model Selection for SVM
Chapter 80
Juan L. Pérez, Belén González-Fonteboa, Fernando Martínez-Abella
Throughout the last decades, one of society’s concerns has been the development of new tools to optimize every aspect of daily life. One of the... Sample PDF
EC Techniques in the Structural Concrete Field
Chapter 81
Nieves Pedreira, José Ramón Méndez Salgueiro, Manuel Martínez Carballo
E-learning and the impact of new technologies across contemporary life is a very significant field to education. The challenge of the technology to... Sample PDF
E-Learning in New Technologies
Chapter 82
Darryl N. Davis, Paul M. Chapman
The world of Virtual Environments and Immersive Technologies (Sutherland, 1965) (Kalawsky, 1993) are evolving quite rapidly. As the range and... Sample PDF
Emerging Applications in Immersive Technologies
Chapter 83
Ignasi Iriondo, Santiago Planet, Francesc Alías, Joan-Claudi Socoró, Elisa Martínez
The use of speech in human-machine interaction is increasing as the computer interfaces are becoming more complex but also more useable. These... Sample PDF
Emulating Subjective Criteria in Corpus Validation
Chapter 84
Gloria Bueno García, Antonio Martínez, Roberto González, Manuel Torres
Deformable models are well known examples of artificially intelligent system (AIS). They have played an important role in the challenging problem of... Sample PDF
Energy Minimizing Active Models in Artificial Vision
Chapter 85
M. Paz Sesmero Lorente, Juan Manuel Alonso-Weber, Germán Gutiérrez Sánchez, Agapito Ledezma Espino, Araceli Sanchis de Miguel
“Machine Learning (ML) is the subfield of Artificial Intelligence conceived with the bold objective to develop computational methods that would... Sample PDF
Ensemble of ANN for Traffic Sign Recognition
Chapter 86
Ángela Blanco, Manuel Martín-Merino
Unsolicited commercial email also known as Spam is becoming a serious problem for Internet users and providers (Fawcett, 2003). Several researchers... Sample PDF
Ensemble of SVM Classifiers for Spam Filtering
Chapter 87
Bohumil Sulc, David Klimanek
Evolutionary algorithms are well known optimization techniques suitable for solving various kinds of problems (Ruano, 2005). The new application of... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Algorithms in Discredibility Detection
Chapter 88
Antonia Azzini, Andrea G.B. Tettamanzi
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are computational models, loosely inspired by biological neural networks, consisting of interconnected groups of... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Approaches for ANNs Design
Chapter 89
Marcos Gestal, José Manuel Andrade
The importance of juice beverages in daily food habits makes juice authentication an important issue, for example, to avoid fraudulent practices. A... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Approaches to Variable Selection
Chapter 90
Prayag Narula, Sudip Misra, Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher
Wireless ad-hoc networks are infrastructureless networks in which heterogeneous capable nodes assemble together and start communicating without any... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Computing Approach for Ad-Hoc Networks
Chapter 91
Ernesto Rodrigues, Heitor Silvério Lopes
Grammatical Inference (also known as grammar induction) is the problem of learning a grammar for a language from a set of examples. In a broad... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Grammatical Inference
Chapter 92
Evolutionary Robotics  (pages 603-608)
J. A. Becerra, R. J. Duro
Evolutionary Robotics is a field of Autonomous Robotics where the controllers that implement behaviours are obtained through some kind of... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Robotics
Chapter 93
Laurentiu Ionescu, Alin Mazare, Gheorghe Serban, Emil Sofron
Traditionally physical systems have been designed by engineers using complex collections of rules and principles. The design process is top-down in... Sample PDF
Evolved Synthesis of Digital Circuits
Chapter 94
Daniel Rivero, David Periscal
One of the most successful tools in the Artificial Intelligence (AI) world is Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). This technique is a powerful tool... Sample PDF
Evolving Graphs for ANN Development and Simplification
Chapter 95
Fadi Dornaika, Bogdan Raducanu
Facial expression plays an important role in cognition of human emotions (Fasel, 2003 & Yeasin, 2006). The recognition of facial expressions in... Sample PDF
Facial Expression Recognition for HCI Applications
Chapter 96
Feature Selection  (pages 632-638)
Noelia Sánchez-Maroño, Amparo Alonso-Betanzos
Many scientific disciplines use modelling and simulation processes and techniques in order to implement non-linear mapping between the input and the... Sample PDF
Feature Selection
Chapter 97
Lluís A. Belanche Muñoz
The class of adaptive systems known as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) was motivated by the amazing parallel processing capabilities of biological... Sample PDF
Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Network Basics
Chapter 98
Marcos Gestal, Mari Paz Gómez-Carracedo
Traditionally, the Evolutionary Computation (EC) techniques, and more specifically the Genetic Algorithms (GAs) (Goldberg & Wang, 1989), have proved... Sample PDF
Finding Multiple Solutions with GA in Multimodal Problems
Chapter 99
László Kovács, Domonkos Tikk
Current databases are able to store several Tbytes of free-text documents. The main purpose of a database from the user’s viewpoint is the efficient... Sample PDF
Full-Text Search Engines for Databases
Chapter 100
Tuomas Kärnä, Amaury Lendasse
High dimensional data are becoming more and more common in data analysis. This is especially true in fields that are related to spectrometric data... Sample PDF
Functional Dimension Reduction for Chemometrics
Chapter 101
Functional Networks  (pages 667-676)
Oscar Fontenla-Romero, Bertha Guijarro-Berdiñas, Beatriz Pérez-Sánchez
Functional networks are a generalization of neural networks, which is achieved by using multiargument and learnable functions, i.e., in these... Sample PDF
Functional Networks
Chapter 102
Juan Carlos González-Castolo, Ernesto López-Mellado
State estimation of dynamic systems is a resort often used when only a subset of the state variables can be directly measured; observers are the... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Approximation of DES State
Chapter 103
Guanrong Chen, Young Hoon Joo
Fuzzy control systems are developed based on fuzzy set theory, attributed to Lotfi A. Zadeh (Zadeh, 1965, 1973), which extends the classical set... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Control Systems: An Introduction
Chapter 104
Fuzzy Decision Trees  (pages 696-703)
Malcolm J. Beynon
The inductive learning methodology known as decision trees, concerns the ability to classify objects based on their attributes values, using a tree... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Decision Trees
Chapter 105
Leonid S. Bershtein, Alexander V. Bozhenyuk
Graph theory has numerous application to problems in systems analysis, operations research, economics, and transportation. However, in many cases... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Graphs and Fuzzy Hypergraphs
Chapter 106
Alfonso Castro, Bernardino Arcay
Ever since Zadeh established the basis of fuzzy logic in his famous article Fuzzy Sets (Zadeh, 1965), an increasing number of research areas have... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Logic Applied to Biomedical Image Analysis
Chapter 107
Rosa Maria Alsina Pagès, Clàudia Mateo Segura, Joan-Claudi Socoró Carrié
The acquisition system is one of the most sensitive stages in a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS) receiver (Peterson, Ziemer & Borth, 1995)... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Logic Estimator for Variant SNR Environments
Chapter 108
Fuzzy Rule Interpolation  (pages 728-733)
Szilveszter Kovács
The “fuzzy dot” (or fuzzy relation) representation of fuzzy rules in fuzzy rule based systems, in case of classical fuzzy reasoning methods (e.g.... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Rule Interpolation
Chapter 109
Young Hoon Joo, Guanrong Chen
The basic objective of system modeling is to establish an input-output representative mapping that can satisfactorily describe the system behaviors... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Systems Modeling: An Introduction
Chapter 110
Enrique Fernandez-Blanco, J. Andrés Serantes
From the unicellular to the more complex pluricellular organism needs to process the signals from its environment to survive. The computation... Sample PDF
Gene Regulation Network Use for Information Processing
Chapter 111
Pi-Sheng Deng
Genetic algorithms (GAs) are stochastic search techniques based on the concepts of natural population genetics for exploring a huge solution space... Sample PDF
Genetic Algorithm Applications to Optimization Modeling
Chapter 112
João H. Kleinschmidt
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of a large number of low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. Some of the applications of sensor networks are... Sample PDF
Genetic Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks
Chapter 113
Óscar Ibáñez, Alberte Castro
Fuzzy Logic (FL) and fuzzy sets in a wide interpretation of FL (in terms in which fuzzy logic is coextensive with the theory of fuzzy sets, that is... Sample PDF
Genetic Fuzzy Systems Applied to Ports and Coasts Engineering
Chapter 114
Daniel Manrique, Juan Ríos, Alfonso Rodríguez-Patón
Evolutionary computation (EC) is the study of computational systems that borrow ideas from and are inspired by natural evolution and adaptation (Yao... Sample PDF
Grammar-Guided Genetic Programming
Chapter 115
Granular Computing  (pages 774-780)
Georg Peters
It is well accepted that in many real life situations information is not certain and precise but rather uncertain or imprecise. To describe... Sample PDF
Granular Computing
Chapter 116
Soledad Delgado, Consuelo Gonzalo, Estíbaliz Martínez, Águeda Arquero
Currently, there exist many research areas that produce large multivariable datasets that are difficult to visualize in order to extract useful... Sample PDF
Growing Self-Organizing Maps for Data Analysis
Chapter 117
Lluís Formiga, Francesc Alías
Unit Selection Text-to-Speech Synthesis (US-TTS) systems produce synthetic speech based on the retrieval of previous recorded speech units from a... Sample PDF
GTM User Modeling for aIGA Weight Tuning in TTS Synthesis
Chapter 118
Roy Gelbard, Avichai Meged
Representing and consequently processing fuzzy data in standard and binary databases is problematic. The problem is further amplified in binary... Sample PDF
Handling Fuzzy Similarity for Data Classification
Chapter 119
Zong Woo Geem
The dam is the wall that holds the water in, and the operation of multiple dams is complicated decisionmaking process as an optimization problem... Sample PDF
Harmony Search for Multiple Dam Scheduling
Chapter 120
Marley Vellasco, Marco Pacheco, Karla Figueiredo, Flavio Souza
Neuro-fuzzy [Jang,1997][Abraham,2005] are hybrid systems that combine the learning capacity of neural nets [Haykin,1999] with the linguistic... Sample PDF
Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Systems Part I
Chapter 121
Marley Vellasco, Marco Pacheco, Karla Figueiredo, Flavio Souza
This paper describes a new class of neuro-fuzzy models, called Reinforcement Learning Hierarchical Neuro- Fuzzy Systems (RL-HNF). These models... Sample PDF
Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Systems Part II
Chapter 122
Carlos Diuk, Michael Littman
Reinforcement learning (RL) deals with the problem of an agent that has to learn how to behave to maximize its utility by its interactions with an... Sample PDF
Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning
Chapter 123
Nouma Izeboudjen, Ahcene Farah, Hamid Bessalah, Ahmed Bouridene, Nassim Chikhi
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are systems which are derived from the field of neuroscience and are characterized by intensive arithmetic... Sample PDF
High Level Design Approach for FPGA Implementation of ANNs
Chapter 124
Stefano Cagnoni, Monica Mordonini, Luca Mussi, Giovanni Adorni
Biological vision processes are usually characterized by the following different phases: • Awareness: natural or artificial agents operating in... Sample PDF
HOPS: A Hybrid Dual Camera Vision System
Chapter 125
Stefano Cagnoni, Monica Mordonini, Luca Mussi, Giovanni Adorni
Many of the known visual systems in nature are characterized by a wide field of view allowing animals to keep the whole surrounding environment... Sample PDF
Hybrid Dual Camera Vision Systems
Chapter 126
Ana Maria Madureira
The complexity of current computer systems has led the software engineering, distributed systems and management communities to look for inspiration... Sample PDF
Hybrid Meta-Heuristics Based System for Dynamic Scheduling
Chapter 127
Carlos Alberto Reyes-García, Ramon Zatarain, Lucia Barron, Orion Fausto Reyes-Galaviz
Crying in babies is a primary communication function, governed directly by the brain; any alteration on the normal functioning of the babies’ body... Sample PDF
A Hybrid System for Automatic Infant Cry Recognition I
Chapter 128
Carlos Alberto Reyes-García, Sandra E. Barajas, Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle, Orion Fausto Reyes-Galaviz
Automatic Infant Cry Recognition (AICR) process is basically a problem of pattern processing, very similar to the Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR)... Sample PDF
A Hybrid System for Automatic Infant Cry Recognition II
Chapter 129
Antonio Seoane, Alberto Jaspe
Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have been evolving very fast, turning into high performance programmable processors. Though GPUs have been designed... Sample PDF
IA Algorithm Acceleration Using GPUs
Chapter 130
Liwei Fan, Kim Leng Poh
A Bayesian Network (BN) takes a relationship between graphs and probability distributions. In the past, BN was mainly used for knowledge... Sample PDF
Improving the Naïve Bayes Classifier
Chapter 131
Lior Rokach
In this chapter we discuss how fuzzy logic extends the envelop of the main data mining tasks: clustering, classification, regression and association... Sample PDF
Incorporating Fuzzy Logic in Data Mining Tasks
Chapter 132
Independent Subspaces  (pages 892-901)
Lei Xu
Several unsupervised learning topics have been extensively studied with wide applications for decades in the literatures of statistics, signal... Sample PDF
Independent Subspaces
Chapter 133
Deniz Erdogmus, Jose C. Principe
Learning systems depend on three interrelated components: topologies, cost/performance functions, and learning algorithms. Topologies provide the... Sample PDF
Information Theoretic Learning
Chapter 134
O. Valenzuela, I. Rojas, F. Rojas, A. Guillen, L. J. Herrera, F. J. Rojas, M. Cepero
This chapter is focused on the analysis and classification of arrhythmias. An arrhythmia is any cardiac pace that is not the typical sinusoidal one... Sample PDF
Intelligent Classifier for Atrial Fibrillation (ECG)
Chapter 135
G. Nicolás Marichal, Evelio J. González
The concept of agent has been successfully used in a wide range of applications such as Robotics, e-commerce, agent-assisted user training, military... Sample PDF
Intelligent MAS in System Engineering and Robotics
Chapter 136
Safiye Turgay, Fahrettin Yaman
The query answering system realizes the selection of the data, preparation, pattern discovering, and pattern development processes in an agent-based... Sample PDF
Intelligent Query Answering Mechanism in Multi Agent Systems
Chapter 137
Raúl Vicen Bueno, Manuel Rosa Zurera, María Pilar Jarabo Amores, Roberto Gil Pita, David de la Mata Moya
The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are based on the behaviour of the brain. So, they can be considered as intelligent systems. In this way, the... Sample PDF
Intelligent Radar Detectors
Chapter 138
Xin Luo, Somasheker Akkaladevi
Equipped with sophisticated information technology infrastructures, the information world is becoming more expansive and widely interconnected.... Sample PDF
Intelligent Software Agents Analysis in E-Commerce I
Chapter 139
Xin Luo, Somasheker Akkaladevi
Cowan et al. (2002) argued that the human cognitive ability to search for information and to evaluate their usefulness is extremely limited in... Sample PDF
Intelligent Software Agents Analysis in E-Commerce II
Chapter 140
Mario Jankovic-Romano, Milan Stankovic, Uroš Krcadinac
Most people are familiar with the concept of agents in real life. There are stock-market agents, sports agents, real-estate agents, etc. Agents are... Sample PDF
Intelligent Software Agents with Applications in Focus
Chapter 141
Raúl Vicen Bueno, Elena Torijano Gordo, Antonio García González, Manuel Rosa Zurera, Roberto Gil Pita
The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are based on the behavior of the brain. So, they can be considered as intelligent systems. In this way, the... Sample PDF
Intelligent Traffic Sign Classifiers
Chapter 142
Qiyang Chen, John Wang
Today’s e-commerce environment requires that interactive systems exhibit abilities such as autonomy, adaptive and collaborative behavior, and... Sample PDF
Interactive Systems and Sources of Uncertainties
Chapter 143
Ioannis K. Vlachos, George D. Sergiadis
Since its genesis, fuzzy sets (FSs) theory (Zadeh, 1965) provided a flexible framework for handling the indeterminacy characterizing real-world... Sample PDF
Intuitionistic Fuzzy Image Processing
Chapter 144
Javier Andrade, Santiago Rodríguez, María Seoane, Sonia Suárez
The success of the organisations is increasingly dependant on the knowledge they have, to the detriment of other traditionally decisive factors as... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Systems Procedural Development
Chapter 145
Juan Ares, Rafael García, María Seoane, Sonia Suárez
The Knowledge Management (KM) is a recent discipline that was born under the idea of explicitly managing the whole existing knowledge of a given... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Tools and Their Desirable Characteristics
Chapter 146
Knowledge-Based Systems  (pages 989-995)
Adrian A. Hopgood
The tools of artificial intelligence (AI) can be divided into two broad types: knowledge-based systems (KBSs) and computational intelligence (CI).... Sample PDF
Knowledge-Based Systems
Chapter 147
Marie-Thérèse Boyer-Xambeu, Ghislain Deleplace, Patrice Gaubert, Lucien Gillard
In the analysis of a temporal process, Kohonen maps may be used together with time-series (TS) algorithms. Previous research aimed at combining... Sample PDF
Kohonen Maps and TS Algorithms
Chapter 148
Lluís A. Belanche Muñoz
The view of artificial neural networks as adaptive systems has lead to the development of ad-hoc generic procedures known as learning rules. The... Sample PDF
Learning in Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Networks I
Chapter 149
Lluís A. Belanche Muñoz
Supervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are information processing systems that adapt their functionality as a result of exposure to... Sample PDF
Learning in Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Networks II
Chapter 150
Alfredo Garro
Game Theory (Von Neumann & Morgenstern, 1944) is a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations (games) where self-interested... Sample PDF
Learning Nash Equilibria in Non-Cooperative Games
Chapter 151
Learning-Based Planning  (pages 1024-1028)
Sergio Jiménez Celorrio, Tomás de la Rosa Turbides
Automated Planning (AP) studies the generation of action sequences for problem solving. A problem in AP is defined by a state-transition function... Sample PDF
Learning-Based Planning
Chapter 152
Patrick Rousset, Jean-Francois Giret
The aim of this paper is to present a typology of career paths in France drawn up with the Kohonen algorithm and its extension to a clustering... Sample PDF
A Longitudinal Analysis of Labour Market Data with SOM
Chapter 153
Qiyang Chen, John Wang
To adapt users’ input and tasks an interactive system must be able to establish a set of assumptions about users’ profiles and task characteristics... Sample PDF
Managing Uncertainties in Interactive Systems
Chapter 154
Francesco di Pierro, Soon-Thiam Khu, Dragan A. Savic
Many-objective evolutionary optimisation is a recent research area that is concerned with the optimisation of problems consisting of a large number... Sample PDF
Many-Objective Evolutionary Optimisation
Chapter 155
Yi Zhao, Wolfgang A. Halang
As a key factor to enable interoperability in the Semantic Web (Berners-Lee, Hendler & Lassila, 2001), ontologies are developed by different... Sample PDF
Mapping Ontologies by Utilising Their Semantic Structure
Chapter 156
Radu Mutihac
Models and algorithms have been designed to mimic information processing and knowledge acquisition of the human brain generically called artificial... Sample PDF
Mathematical Modeling of Artificial Neural Networks
Chapter 157
Juan M. Gómez, Ricardo Colomo, Marcos Ruano, Ángel García
Technological advances in high-throughput techniques and efficient data gathering methods, coupled computational biology efforts, have resulted in a... Sample PDF
Microarray Information and Data Integration Using SAMIDI
Chapter 158
Lee Gim Hee, Marcelo H. Ang Jr.
The development of autonomous mobile robots is continuously gaining importance particularly in the military for surveillance as well as in industry... Sample PDF
Mobile Robots Navigation, Mapping, and Localization Part I
Chapter 159
Lee Gim Hee, Marcelo H. Ang Jr.
In addition to the capability to navigate from a point of origin to a given goal and avoiding all static and dynamic obstacles, a mobile robot must... Sample PDF
Mobile Robots Navigation, Mapping, and Localization Part II
Chapter 160
Nikolay V. Shilov, Natalia Garanina
It becomes evident in recent years a surge of interest to applications of modal logics for specification and validation of complex systems. It holds... Sample PDF
Modal Logics for Reasoning about Multiagent Systems
Chapter 161
Ricardo Téllez, Cecilio Angulo
The concept of modularity is a main concern for the generation of artificially intelligent systems. Modularity is an ubiquitous organization... Sample PDF
Modularity in Artificial Neural Networks
Chapter 162
Jose Crespo
In the last fifty years, approximately, advances in computers and the availability of images in digital form have made it possible to process and to... Sample PDF
Morphological Filtering Principles
Chapter 163
Enrique Mérida-Casermeiro, Domingo López-Rodríguez, Juan M. Ortiz-de-Lazcano-Lobato
Since McCulloch and Pitts’ seminal work (McCulloch & Pitts, 1943), several models of discrete neural networks have been proposed, many of them... Sample PDF
MREM, Discrete Recurrent Network for Optimization
Chapter 164
Ivan N. Silva, Rogerio A. Flauzino
The design of fuzzy inference systems comes along with several decisions taken by the designers since is necessary to determine, in a coherent way... Sample PDF
Multilayer Optimization Approach for Fuzzy Systems
Chapter 165
László Kovács, Tanja Sieber
One of the basic terms in information engineering is data. In our approach, data item is defined as representation of an information atom stored in... Sample PDF
Multi-Layered Semantic Data Models
Chapter 166
P. A. Gutiérrez, C. Hervás, F. J. Martínez-Estudillo, M. Carbonero
Multi-class pattern recognition has a wide range of applications including handwritten digit recognition (Chiang, 1998), speech tagging and... Sample PDF
Multilogistic Regression by Product Units
Chapter 167
Sanjoy Das, Bijaya K. Panigrahi
Real world optimization problems are often too complex to be solved through analytical means. Evolutionary algorithms, a class of algorithms that... Sample PDF
Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms
Chapter 168
M. P. Cuéllar, Miguel Delgado, M. C. Pegalajar
Traditionally, the application of a neural network (Haykin, 1999) to solve a problem has required to follow some steps before to obtain the desired... Sample PDF
Multi-Objective Training of Neural Networks
Chapter 169
Gian Piero Zarri
In a companion article of this Encyclopaedia: ‘Narrative’ Information, the Problem, we have introduced the problem of finding a complete and... Sample PDF
"Narrative" Information and the NKRL Solution
Chapter 170
Gian Piero Zarri
‘Narrative’ information concerns in general the account of some real-life or fictional story (a ‘narrative’) involving concrete or imaginary... Sample PDF
"Narrative" Information Problems
Chapter 171
Gemma Bel Enguix, M. Dolores Jiménez López
During the 20th century, biology—especially molecular biology—has become a pilot science, so that many disciplines have formulated their theories... Sample PDF
Natural Language Processing and Biological Methods
Chapter 172
Vasile Rus, Philip M. McCarthy, Danielle S. McNamara, Arthur C. Graesser
Natural language understanding and assessment is a subset of natural language processing (NLP). The primary purpose of natural language... Sample PDF
Natural Language Understanding and Assessment
Chapter 173
Matthew Szenher
Almost all autonomous robots need to navigate. We define navigation as do Franz & Mallot (2000): “Navigation is the process of determining and... Sample PDF
Navigation by Image-Based Visual Homing
Chapter 174
Sanjoy Das
Real world optimization problems are often too complex to be solved through analytic means. Evolutionary algorithms are a class of algorithms that... Sample PDF
Nelder-Mead Evolutionary Hybrid Algorithms
Chapter 175
Francisco García-Córdova, Antonio Guerrero-González, Fulgencio Marín-García
Neural networks have been used in a number of robotic applications (Das & Kar, 2006; Fierro & Lewis, 1998), including both manipulators and mobile... Sample PDF
Neural Control System for Autonomous Vehicles
Chapter 176
Enrique Romero, Julio J. Valdés, Alan J. Barton
According to the World Health Organization (http://, cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. From a total of 58 million... Sample PDF
Neural Network-Based Visual Data Mining for Cancer Data
Chapter 177
Juergen Perl
Processes in sport like motions or games are influenced by communication, interaction, adaptation, and spontaneous decisions. Therefore, on the one... Sample PDF
Neural Network-Based Process Analysis in Sport
Chapter 178
Daniela Danciu, Vladimir Rasvan
All neural networks, both natural and artificial, are characterized by two kinds of dynamics. The first one is concerned with what we would call... Sample PDF
Neural Networks and Equilibria, Synchronization, and Time Lags
Chapter 179
Juan J. González De la Rosa, Carlos G. Puntonet, A. Moreno-Muñoz
Power quality (PQ) event detection and classification is gaining importance due to worldwide use of delicate electronic devices. Things like... Sample PDF
Neural Networks and HOS for Power Quality Evaluation
Chapter 180
J. Francisco Vargas, Miguel A. Ferrer
Biometric offers potential for automatic personal identification and verification, differently from other means for personal verification; biometric... Sample PDF
Neural Networks on Handwritten Signature Verification
Chapter 181
Vassilis G. Kaburlasos
Computational Intelligence (CI) consists of an evolving collection of methodologies often inspired from nature (Bonissone, Chen, Goebel & Khedkar... Sample PDF
Neural/Fuzzy Computing Based on Lattice Theory
Chapter 182
Tien Ho-Phuoc, Anne Guerin-Dugue
The Self-Organizing Map (Kohonen, 1997) is an effective and a very popular tool for data clustering and visualization. With this method, the input... Sample PDF
A New Self-Organizing Map for Dissimilarity Data
Chapter 183
Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Irwin B. Levinstein, Danielle S. McNamara, Joseph P. Magliano, Keith K. Millis
Many Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) aim to help students become better readers. The computational challenges involved are (1) to assess the... Sample PDF
NLP Techniques in Intelligent Tutoring Systems
Chapter 184
Carlos M. Travieso González, Aythami Morales Moreno
The verification of identity is becoming a crucial factor in our hugely interconnected society. Questions such as “Is she really who she claims to... Sample PDF
Non-Cooperative Facial Biometric Identification Systems
Chapter 185
Jesús Bernardino Alonso Hernández, Patricia Henríquez Rodríguez
The field of nonlinear signal characterization and nonlinear signal processing has attracted a growing number of researchers in the past three... Sample PDF
Nonlinear Techniques for Signals Characterization
Chapter 186
Mónica Miguélez Rico, José Antonio Seoane Fernández, Julián Dorado de la Calle
The researchers currently have a new tool for dealing with the solution of biomedical problems: the Microarrays. These devices support the study and... Sample PDF
Ontologies and Processing Patterns for Microarrays
Chapter 187
Manuel Lama, Eduardo Sánchez
In the last years, the growing of the Internet have opened the door to new ways of learning and education methodologies. Furthermore, the appearance... Sample PDF
Ontologies for Education and Learning Design
Chapter 188
Ontology Alignment Overview  (pages 1283-1289)
José Manuel Vázquez Naya, Marcos Martínez Romero, Javier Pereira Loureiro, Alejandro Pazos Sierra
At present, ontologies are considered to be an appropriate solution to the problem of heterogeneity in data, since ontological methods make it... Sample PDF
Ontology Alignment Overview
Chapter 189
Marcos Martínez Romero, José Manuel Vázquez Naya, Javier Pereira Loureiro, Norberto Ezquerra
Sometimes the use of a single ontology is not sufficient to cover different vocabularies for the same domain, and it becomes necessary to use... Sample PDF
Ontology Alignment Techniques
Chapter 190
V. Romero-García, E. Fuster-Garcia, J. V. Sánchez-Pérez, L. M. Garcia-Raffi, X. Blasco, J. M. Herrero, J. Sanchis
A genetic algorithm is a global search method based on a simile of the natural evolution. Genetic Algorithms have demonstrated good performance for... Sample PDF
Optimization of the Acoustic Systems
Chapter 191
Stefano Cagnoni, Monica Mordonini
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a simple but powerful optimization algorithm, introduced by Kennedy and Eberhart (Kennedy 1995). Its search for... Sample PDF
Particle Swarm Optimization and Image Analysis
Chapter 192
Neal Shambaugh
Decision support systems (DSS) are computerized systems that assist humans to make decisions. Early versions were designed for executives, but over... Sample PDF
Personalized Decision Support Systems
Chapter 193
Javier Bajo, Dante I. Tapia, Sara Rodríguez, Juan M. Corchado
Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) have become increasingly relevant for developing distributed and dynamic intelligent environments. The ability... Sample PDF
Planning Agent for Geriatric Residences
Chapter 194
Mohammad Saad Al-Ahmadi, Rathindra Sarathy
Data mining has evolved from a need to make sense of the enormous amounts of data generated by organizations. But data mining comes with its own... Sample PDF
Privacy-Preserving Estimation
Chapter 195
Somasheker Akkaladevi, Ajay K. Katangur, Xin Luo
Prediction of protein secondary structure (alpha-helix, beta-sheet, coil) from primary sequence of amino acids is a very challenging and difficult... Sample PDF
Protein Structure Prediction by Fusion,Bayesian Methods
Chapter 196
Frank-M. Schleif, Thomas Villmann, Barbara Hammer
Bioinformatics has become an important tool to support clinical and biological research and the analysis of functional data, is a common task in... Sample PDF
Prototype Based Classification in Bioinformatics
Chapter 197
Randomized Hough Transform  (pages 1343-1350)
Lei Xu, Erkki Oja
Proposed in 1962, the Hough transform (HT) has been widely applied and investigated for detecting curves, shapes, and motions in the fields of image... Sample PDF
Randomized Hough Transform
Chapter 198
Ranking Functions  (pages 1351-1355)
Franz Huber
Ranking functions have been introduced under the name of ordinal conditional functions in Spohn (1988; 1990). They are representations of epistemic... Sample PDF
Ranking Functions
Chapter 199
Robert Lukomski, Kazimierz Wilkosz
A necessary condition for monitoring and control of a Power System (PS) is possessing a credible model of this system. The PS model for a need of... Sample PDF
RBF Networks for Power System Topology Verification
Chapter 200
José García-Rodríguez, Francisco Flórez-Revuelta, Juan Manuel García-Chamizo
Self-organising neural networks try to preserve the topology of an input space by means of their competitive learning. This capacity has been used... Sample PDF
Representing Non-Rigid Objects with Neural Networks
Chapter 201
A Roadmap on Updates  (pages 1370-1375)
Fernando Zacarías Flores, Dionicio Zacarías Flores, Rosalba Cuapa Canto, Luis Miguel Guzmán Muñoz
Updates, is a central issue in relational databases and knowledge databases. In the last years, it has been well studied in the non-monotonic... Sample PDF
A Roadmap on Updates
Chapter 202
Carlos Herrera, Tom Ziemke, Thomas M. McGinnity
A general goal of biologically inspired robotics is to learn lessons from actual biological systems and to find applications in robot design. Neural... Sample PDF
A Robot Model of Dynamic Appraisal and Response
Chapter 203
Robots in Education  (pages 1383-1388)
Muhammad Ali Yousuf
The new paradigm in engineering education demands hands-on training of the students using technology oriented projects. The roots of this approach... Sample PDF
Robots in Education
Chapter 204
Andrzej Rusiecki
Feedforward neural networks (FFNs) are often considered as universal tools and find their applications in areas such as function approximation... Sample PDF
Robust Learning Algorithm with LTS Error Function
Chapter 205
Kai Keng Ang, Chai Quek
Neuro-fuzzy hybridization is the oldest and most popular methodology in soft computing (Mitra & Hayashi, 2000). Neuro-fuzzy hybridization is known... Sample PDF
Rough Set-Based Neuro-Fuzzy System
Chapter 206
Agostino Poggi, Michele Tomaiuolo
Expert systems are successfully applied to a number of domains. Often built on generic rule-based systems, they can also exploit optimized... Sample PDF
Rule Engines and Agent-Based Systems
Chapter 207
Chun-Cheng Peng, George D. Magoulas
Sequence processing involves several tasks such as clustering, classification, prediction, and transduction of sequential data which can be... Sample PDF
Sequence Processing with Recurrent Neural Networks
Chapter 208
Ioanna Roussaki, Ioannis Papaioannou, Miltiades Anagnostou
In the artificial intelligence domain, an emerging research field that rapidly gains momentum is Automated Negotiations (Fatima, Wooldridge, &... Sample PDF
Shortening Automated Negotiation Threads via Neural Nets
Chapter 209
Fernando Zacarías Flores, Dionicio Zacarías Flores, Rosalba Cuapa Canto, Luis Miguel Guzmán Muñoz
The agent paradigm has recently increased its influence in the research and development of computational logicbased systems. A clear and correct... Sample PDF
Signed Formulae as a New Update Process
Chapter 210
Fatih Onur Hocaoglu, Ömer Nezih Gerek, Mehmet Kurban
The prediction of hourly solar radiation data has important consequences in many solar applications (Markvart, Fragaki & Ross, 2006). Such data can... Sample PDF
Solar Radiation Forecasting Model
Chapter 211
Jesús Bernardino Alonso Hernández, Patricia Henríquez Rodríguez
It is possible to implement help systems for diagnosis oriented to the evaluation of the fonator system using speech signal, by means of techniques... Sample PDF
Speech-Based Clinical Diagnostic Systems
Chapter 212
Carlos M. Travieso González, Carlos F. Romero
Today, advances in Computer Science and the proliferation of computers in modern society are an unquestionable fact. Nevertheless, the continuing... Sample PDF
State of the Art in Writer's Off-Line Identification
Chapter 213
Yan Yan, Yu-Jin Zhang
Over the past few years, face recognition has gained many interests. Face recognition has become a popular area of research in computer vision and... Sample PDF
State-of-the-Art on Video-Based Face Recognition
Chapter 214
Arturo Berrones, Dexmont Peña, Ricardo Sánchez
The optimization of a cost function which has a number of local minima is a relevant subject in many important fields. For instance, the... Sample PDF
Stationary Density of Stochastic Search Processes
Chapter 215
Mirjam Sepesy Maucec, Zdravko Kacic
A language model is a description of language. Although grammar has been the prevalent tool in modelling language for a long time, interest has... Sample PDF
Statistical Modelling of Highly Inflective Languages
Chapter 216
Snorre Aunet, Hans Kristian Otnes Berge
In this article we compare a number of full-adder (1- bit addition) cells regarding minimum supply voltage and yield, when taking statistical... Sample PDF
Statistical Simulations on Perceptron-Based Adders
Chapter 217
Faming Liang
Over the past several decades, multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) have achieved increased popularity among scientists, engineers, and other professionals... Sample PDF
Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo for MLP Learning
Chapter 218
M. Martínez-Zarzuela, F. J. Díaz Pernas, D. González Ortega, J. F. Díez Higuera, M. Antón Rodríguez
An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a computational structure inspired by the study of biological neural processing. Although neurons are... Sample PDF
Stream Processing of a Neural Classifier I
Chapter 219
M. Martínez-Zarzuela, F. J. Díaz Pernas, D. González Ortega, J. F. Díez Higuera, M. Antón Rodríguez
This article presents a real-time Fuzzy ART neural classifier for skin segmentation implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). GPUs have... Sample PDF
Stream Processing of a Neural Classifier II
Chapter 220
Pi-Sheng Deng
Performance of genetic algorithms (GAs) is mainly determined by several factors. Not only the genetic operators affect the performance of a GA with... Sample PDF
A Study of the Performance Effect of Genetic Operators
Chapter 221
M. Mohammadian
Conventionally modelling and simulation of complex nonlinear systems has been to construct a mathematical model and examine the system’s evolution... Sample PDF
Supervised Learning of Fuzzy Logic Systems
Chapter 222
Support Vector Machines  (pages 1518-1523)
Cecilio Angulo, Luis Gonzalez-Abril
Support Vector Machines -- SVMs -- are learning machines, originally designed for bi-classification problems, implementing the well-known Structural... Sample PDF
Support Vector Machines
Chapter 223
Ioannis Papaioannou, Ioanna Roussaki, Miltiades Anagnostou
Automated negotiation is a very challenging research field that is gaining momentum in the e-business domain. There are three main categories of... Sample PDF
A Survey on Neural Networks in Automated Negotiations
Chapter 224
Prayag Narula, Sudip Misra, Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher
Wireless ad-hoc networks are infrastructureless and they consist of nodes that come together and start communicating dynamically without requiring... Sample PDF
Swarm Intelligence Approach for Ad-Hoc Networks
Chapter 225
Swarm Robotics  (pages 1537-1542)
Amanda J.C. Sharkey
Swarm Robotics is a biologically inspired approach to the organisation and control of groups of robots. Its biological inspiration is mainly drawn... Sample PDF
Swarm Robotics
Chapter 226
Symbol Grounding Problem  (pages 1543-1548)
Angelo Loula, João Queiroz
The topic of representation acquisition, manipulation and use has been a major trend in Artificial Intelligence since its beginning and persists as... Sample PDF
Symbol Grounding Problem
Chapter 227
Symbolic Search  (pages 1549-1554)
Stefan Edelkamp
Symbolic search solves state space problems consisting of an initial state, a set of goal states, and a set of actions using a succinct... Sample PDF
Symbolic Search
Chapter 228
Snorre Aunet
Many different synthetic neuron implementations exist, that include a variety of traits associated with biological neurons and our understanding of... Sample PDF
Synthetic Neuron Implementations
Chapter 229
Raymond Chiong
In the field of Natural Language Processing, one of the very important research areas of Information Extraction (IE) comes in Named Entity... Sample PDF
Teaching Machines to Find Names
Chapter 230
T. T. Wong, C. W. Leung
Recent advances in the applications of ANN have demonstrated successful cases in time series analysis, data mining, civil engineering, financial... Sample PDF
Thermal Design of Gas-Fired Cooktop Burners Through ANN
Chapter 231
Fernando Mateo, Ramón J. Aliaga, Jorge D. Martínez, José Ma Monzó, Rafael Gadea
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a radiotracer imaging technique based on the administration (typically by injection) of compounds labelled... Sample PDF
A 2D Positioning Application in PET Using ANNs
Chapter 232
Pablo Mesejo, Enrique Fernández-Blanco, Diego Martínez-Feijóo, Francisco J. Blanco
This paper presents the preliminary studies for the creation of a new tool to assist in medical diagnostic. The tool will help in the analysis of... Sample PDF
2D-PAGE Analysis Using Evolutionary Computation
Chapter 233
Julio J. Valdés, Alan J. Barton
According to the World Health Organization(WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system... Sample PDF
Visualizing Cancer Databases Using Hybrid Spaces
Chapter 234
Adnan Khashman, Kadri Buruncuk, Samir Jabr
The explosive growth in decision-support systems over the past 30 years has yielded numerous “intelligent” systems that have often produced... Sample PDF
Voltage Instability Detection Using Neural Networks
Chapter 235
Alberte Castro Ponte, Gregorio Iglesias, Francisco Taveira Pinto, Rodrigo Carballo
Several types of structures are used in Coastal Engineering with the aim of preventing shoreline erosion, such as groynes, detached breakwaters... Sample PDF
Wave Reflection at Submerged Breakwaters
Chapter 236
Sylvia Encheva, Sharil Tumin
The issue of rewarding partially correct answers has been addressed by many authors (Guzman, E. & Conejo, R., 2004, Gardner-Medwin, A.R. 1995... Sample PDF
Web-Based Assessment System Applying Many-Valued Logic
Chapter 237
Marina Flores-Badillo, Ernesto López-Mellado
Nowadays Information Systems (IS) are designed for individual task execution control allowing coordinating, monitoring, and supporting the... Sample PDF
Workflow Management Based on Mobile Agent Technology
About the Editors