Combining Geometry and Image in Biomedical Systems: The RT TPS Case

Combining Geometry and Image in Biomedical Systems: The RT TPS Case

Thomas V. Kilindris (University of Thessaly, Greece) and Kiki Theodorou (University of Thessaly, Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-314-2.ch013
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Abstract

Patient anatomy, biochemical response, as well functional evaluation at organ level, are key fields that produce a significant amount of multi modal information during medical diagnosis. Visualization, processing, and storage of the acquired data sets are essential tasks in everyday medical practice. In order to perform complex processing that involves or rely on image data a robust as well versatile data structure was used as extension of the Visualization Toolkit (VTK). The proposed structure serves as a universal registration container for acquired information and post processed resulted data. The structure is a dynamic multidimensional data holder to host several modalities and/or Meta data like fused image sets, extracted features (volumetric, surfaces, edges) providing a universal coordinate system used for calculations and geometric processes. A case study of Treatment Planning System (TPS) in the stereotactic radiotherapy (RT) based on the proposed structure is discussed as an efficient medical application.
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Introduction

Computer aided medical applications for diagnosis, therapy, simulation or training proliferate gradually in everyday practice heavily relying on image data (Dawson and Kaufmann, 1998; Spitzer & Whitlock, 1998). Radio therapy planning, surgery as well medical simulation requires anatomic and physical modeling of the whole or part of the human body. Further on in silico functional study of the human body physiology requires the interoperation of several models to approximate an as real as possible behavior (Noble, 2002; Gavaghan, Garny, Maini, & Kohl, 2006; Seemann, Hoeper, Doessel, Holden, & Zhang, 2006). Major sources of real world data related to anatomical details are tomographic image sets. Tomographic image sets of 3D solid objects are in general stacked 2D cross-sectional images of the inspected object that contain geometric information mixed with material properties of the solid in terms of radiation absorbance.

The modality used to obtain the tomographic set determines the geometric accuracy of anatomical regions, the resolution of material properties as well functional characteristics. The almost annual doubling in computer power permits today real time manipulation of simultaneous multimodal datasets representation also know as image fusion and 3D image registration. Sometimes modalities act complementary in cases of sparse acquired datasets (Shim, Pitto, Streicher, Hunter P. J. & Anderson I. A. 2007). In order to study physiological function of internal organs several models have been proposed ranging from simple calculation diagrams to complex animated 3D solid models (France et al. 2005; Noble 2002; Seemann, 2007; Selberg & Vanderploeg, 1994; Spirka & Damasa, 2007). Almost all models involve dynamics and geometry. Physiological functions rule dynamics, dynamics produce data and data become finally visualized (Freudenberg, Schiemann, Tiede, & Hoehne, 2000). Soft tissue simulation used extensively in computer assisted surgery planning or training is an example. Tissue is modeled as a deformable object while collision detection between the virtual surgery instruments or even neighbor organs is used. Deformation is modeled according to physiological data while collision detection queries the geometric models to undertake the desired action for example simulated tissue ablation, rapture (Nealen et al. 2005; Teschner et al., 2005).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Image Fusion: Simultaneous presentation of multimodal registered images on a visual media.

Multimodal Imaging (Multispectral): Images of the same object using different physical acquisition technology the term is widely used for medical imaging while multispectral refers to satellite imaging and survey.

Octtrees: 3D space divison data structures analogous to 2D quad trees. Used for storage, compression, collision detection, point search etc.of 3D models.

Surface Reconstruction: The reconstrunction of geometrical surface The surface might by a point cloud, know contours of the recoctructed surface, known gradients.

Visualization Toolkit (VTK): An open source graphical toolkit widely used as a common extendable customizable platform for scientific visualization.

Image Registration: Registration of images in a common known reference coordinate system.

Treatment Planning System (TPS): A computer based system used to simulate, calculate and optimize the radiotherapy treatment of patients. The main tasks are lesion localization, radiation plan generation according to safety and health constaints and geometric feasibility plan optimization.

Contouring: A subdivision process where a set of points logically connected forms a construct that represents a common characteristic feature in general. On a 2D space contouring generates lines while on a 3D space beside lines and surfaces.

Implicit Surface Modeling: Specific modeling process that approximates every geometrical model using implicit mathematical functions as analytical surface representation constructing complex geometric representations maintaining mathematical functionality of the final model.

Stereotactic Radiotherapy: A Radiation therapy procedure that requires precise localization of the target area to deliver fractioned prescribed dose by means of convergent or not beams.

Dose Calculation/Optimization: The procedure to determine the body absorbed energy in both the lesion and healthy tissue. The optimization of the process is inherent due to steep dose delivery around the target.

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Table of Contents
Preface
Themis P. Exarchos, Athanasios Papadopoulos, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Chapter 1
Ioannis Dimou, Michalis Zervakis, David Lowe, Manolis Tsiknakis
The automation of diagnostic tools and the increasing availability of extensive medical datasets in the last decade have triggered the development... Sample PDF
Computational Methods and Tools for Decision Support in Biomedicine: An Overview of Algorithmic Challenges
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Chapter 2
William Hsu, Alex A.T. Bui, Ricky K. Taira, Hooshang Kangarloo
Though an unparalleled amount and diversity of imaging and clinical data are now collected as part of routine care, this information is not... Sample PDF
Integrating Imaging and Clinical Data for Decision Support
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Chapter 3
Spyretta Golemati, John Stoitsis, Konstantina S. Nikita
The estimation of motion of the myocardial and arterial wall is important for the quantification of tissue elasticity and contractility and has... Sample PDF
Analysis and Quantification of Motion within the Cardiovascular System: Implications for the Mechanical Strain of Cardiovascular Structures
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Chapter 4
Christos V. Bourantas, Katerina Naka, Dimitrios Fotiadis, Lampros Michalis
Intracoronary Ultrasound (ICUS) imaging is an intravascular catheter-based technique which provides real-time, high resolution, cross-sectional... Sample PDF
New Developments in Intracoronary Ultrasound Processing
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Chapter 5
Stavroula Mougiakakou, Ioannis Valavanis, Alexandra Nikita, Konstantina S. Nikita
Recent advances in computer science provide the intelligent computation tools needed to design and develop Diagnostic Support Systems (DSSs) that... Sample PDF
Diagnostic Support Systems and Computational Intelligence: Differential Diagnosis of Hepatic Lesions from Computed Tomography Images
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Chapter 6
Marotesa Voultsidou, J. Michael Herrmann
Indicative features of an fMRI data set can be evaluated by methods provided by theory of random matrices (RMT). RMT considers ensembles of matrices... Sample PDF
Significance Estimation in fMRI from Random Matrices
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Chapter 7
Dimitrios C. Karampinos, Robert Dawe, Konstantinos Arfanakis, John G. Georgiadis
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (diffusion MRI) can provide important information about tissue microstructure by probing the diffusion of water... Sample PDF
Optimal Diffusion Encoding Strategies for Fiber Mapping in Diffusion MRI
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Chapter 8
Dimitrios G. Tsalikakis, Petros S. Karvelis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Segmentation plays a crucial role in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) applications, since it permits automated detection of regions of... Sample PDF
Segmentation of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images
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Chapter 9
Katia Marina Passera, Luca Tommaso Mainardi
Image registration is the process of determining the correspondence of features between images collected at different times or using different... Sample PDF
Image Registration Algorithms for Applications in Oncology
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Chapter 10
Lena Costaridou, Spyros Skiadopoulos, Anna Karahaliou, Nikolaos Arikidis, George Panayiotakis
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is currently the most effective modality in detecting breast cancer... Sample PDF
Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Breast Imaging: Trends and Challenges
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Chapter 11
E. Kyriacou, C.I. Christodoulou, C. Loizou, M.S. Pattichis, C.S. Pattichis, S. Kakkos
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Chapter 12
Marios Neofytou, Constantinos Pattichis, Vasilios Tanos, Marios Pattichis, Eftyvoulos Kyriacou
The objective of this chapter is to propose a quantitative hysteroscopy imaging analysis system in gynaecological cancer and to provide the current... Sample PDF
Quantitative Analysis of Hysteroscopy Imaging in Gynecological Cancer
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Chapter 13
Thomas V. Kilindris, Kiki Theodorou
Patient anatomy, biochemical response, as well functional evaluation at organ level, are key fields that produce a significant amount of multi modal... Sample PDF
Combining Geometry and Image in Biomedical Systems: The RT TPS Case
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Chapter 14
Ioannis Tsougos, George Loudos, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Konstantina S. Nikita, Kiki Theodorou
Quantitative three-dimensional nuclear medical imaging plays a continuously increasing role in radionuclide dosimetry, allowing the development of... Sample PDF
Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry using Quantitative 3-D Nuclear Medical Imaging
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Chapter 15
Evanthia E. Tripoliti, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis, Konstantia Veliou
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality which can significantly improve our understanding of the brain... Sample PDF
Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Fiber Tractography
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Chapter 16
Anastasios Koutlas, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
The aim of this chapter is to analyze the recent advances in image processing and machine learning techniques with respect to facial expression... Sample PDF
Image Processing and Machine Learning Techniques for Facial Expression Recognition
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Chapter 17
Arcangelo Merla
This chapter presents an overview on recent developments in the field of clinical applications of the functional infrared imaging. The functional... Sample PDF
Developments and Advances in Biomedical Functional Infrared Imaging
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Chapter 18
Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Panagiotis Moulos
The completion of the Human Genome Project and the emergence of high-throughput technologies at the dawn of the new millennium, are rapidly changing... Sample PDF
DNA Microarrays: Analysis and Interpretation
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Chapter 19
Nikolaos Giannakeas, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Microarray technology allows the comprehensive measurement of the expression level of many genes simultaneously on a common substrate. Typical... Sample PDF
Image Processing and Machine Learning Techniques for the Segmentation of cDNA
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Chapter 20
Petros S. Karvelis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Automated chromosome analysis is now becoming routine in most human cytogenetics laboratories. It involves both processing and analysis of digital... Sample PDF
Recent Advances in Automated Chromosome Image Analysis
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Chapter 21
O. Lezoray, G. Lebrun, C. Meurie, C. Charrier, A. Elmotataz, M. Lecluse
The segmentation of microscopic images is a challenging application that can have numerous applications ranging from prognosis to diagnosis.... Sample PDF
Machine Learning in Morphological Segmentation
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Chapter 22
Michael Haefner, Alfred Gangl, Michael Liedlgruber, A. Uhl, Andreas Vecsei, Friedrich Wrba
Wavelet-, Fourier-, and spatial domain-based texture classification methods have been used successfully for classifying zoom-endoscopic colon images... Sample PDF
Pit Pattern Classification Using Multichannel Features and Multiclassification
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Chapter 23
C. Papaodysseus, P. Rousopoulos, D. Arabadjis, M. Panagopoulos, P. Loumou
In this chapter the state of the art is presented in the domain of automatic identification and classification of bodies on the basis of their... Sample PDF
Automatic Identification and Elastic Properties of Deformed Objects Using their Microscopic Images
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Chapter 24
Alexia Giannoula, Richard S.C. Cobbold
“Elastography” or “elasticity imaging” can be defined as the science and methodology of estimating the mechanical properties of a medium (including... Sample PDF
Nonlinear Ultrasound Radiation-Force Elastography
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Chapter 25
Valentina Russo, Roberto Setola
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview about models and methodologies used for the Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE) analysis. DCE is a... Sample PDF
Dynamic Contrast Enhancement: Analysis's Models and Methodologies
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Chapter 26
George K. Matsopoulos
The accurate estimation of point correspondences is often required in a wide variety of medical image processing applications including image... Sample PDF
Automatic Correspondence Methods towards Point-Based Medical Image Registration: An Evaluation Study
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Chapter 27
Alberto Taboada-Crispi, Hichem Sahli, Denis Hernandez-Pacheco, Alexander Falcon-Ruiz
Various approaches have been taken to detect anomalies, with certain particularities in the medical image scenario, linked to other terms... Sample PDF
Anomaly Detection in Medical Image Analysis
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Chapter 28
C. Delgorge-Rosenberger, C. Rosenberger
The authors present in this chapter an overview on evaluation of medical image compression. The different methodologies used in the literature are... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Medical Image Compression
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Chapter 29
Charalampos Doukas, Ilias Maglogiannis
Medical images are often characterized by high complexity and consist of high resolution image files, introducing thus several issues regarding... Sample PDF
Advanced ROI Coding Techniques for Medical Imaging
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Chapter 30
Farhang Sahba
Ultrasound imaging now has widespread clinical use. It involves exposing a part of the body to highfrequency sound waves in order to generate images... Sample PDF
Segmentation Methods in Ultrasound Images
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