This chapter presents two converging developments. Traditionally, learning at schools or universities and working in a professional context were relatively separated. Companies often complain that students know a lot ‘facts’ but are not ‘competent.’ On the other hand at schools and universities students often complain that they can’t see the relevance of a certain subject. This chapter deals with the two converging worlds: traditional distance training (such as employed at for instance open universities all over the world) and in company training. ICT and competence-based education are bringing the two together, resulting in a combined working/learning mode, which we will describe as learning with real cases. This leads to more self-study or independent learning. Figure 1 presents an overview of the different facets of the tendency to learn with real cases. This chapter will start with a description of distance education since many things can be learned from this. Then, developments in the business or professional context will be presented. We will stress that there is a convergence leading to ‘learning with real cases’. After a description of this development, learning with real cases, as well as pitfalls and recommendations will be discussed.