This chapter speaks to the heterogeneity of research practices in science. It explores how cultural differences within and across disciplines shape the appropriation of e-science tools and infrastructures. Becher’s (2001) anthropological perspective on academic disciplines and Whitley’s (2000) organizational theory of scientific fields are used as a theoretical framework. The argument focuses on how differentials in the degree of interdependence between scientists and the level of uncertainty around research problems, objects, techniques and results affect the integration and coordination of work organization. The resulting cultural configuration has implications for mechanisms of control and consensus around the adoption of new technology. The chapter also highlights how appropriation can in turn shape the work organization and research practices of scientific communities.