Crime Simulation Using GIS and Artificial Intelligent Agents

Crime Simulation Using GIS and Artificial Intelligent Agents

Xuguang Wang (Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), USA), Lin Liu (University of Cincinnati, USA) and John Eck (University of Cincinnati, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-591-7.ch011
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This chapter presents an innovative agent-based model for crime simulation. The model is built on the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. An AI algorithm (reinforcement learning) is applied in designing mobile agents that can find their ways on a street network. The multi-agent system is implemented as a Windows desktop program and then loosely coupled with ESRI ArcGIS. The model allows users to create artificial societies which consist of offender agents, target agents, and crime places for crime pattern simulation purposes. This is a theory-driven system, in which the processes that generate crime events are explicitly modeled. The simulated crime patterns are shown to have similar properties as seen in reported crime patterns.

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Table of Contents
Preface: An Overview of Crime Simulation
Chapter 1
Michael Townsley, Shane Johnson
This chapter outlines how simulation methods might be used to make valid causal inferences in the social sciences, specifically the study of crime.... Sample PDF
The Need for Systematic Replication and Tests of Validity in Simulation
Chapter 2
Henk Elffers, Pieter Van Baal
This chapter considers whether it is worthwhile and useful to enrich agent based spatial simulation studies in criminology with a real geographical... Sample PDF
Realistic Spatial Backcloth is not that Important in Agent Based Simulation Research: An Illustration from Simulating Perceptual Deterrence
Chapter 3
Alex Bruer, Joshua J. Hursey, Arvind Verma
Crime is a multidimensional, complex, and dynamic activity. In order to understand its nature one has to comprehend not only its spatio-temporal... Sample PDF
Visualization of Criminal Activity in an Urban Population
Chapter 4
Md Mahbubur R. Meenar
This chapter introduces the use of geographic information systems simulations and visualizations in urban landuse changes as a means of studying... Sample PDF
GIS-Based Simulation and Visualization of Urban Landuse Change
Chapter 5
Spencer Chainey, Jake Desyllas
This chapter presents results for the first large-scale analysis of street crime rates that utilizes accurate on-street pedestrian population... Sample PDF
Modelling Pedestrian Movement to Measure On-Street Crime Risk
Chapter 6
Heng Wei
This chapter summarizes fundamental models for microscopic simulation (such as vehicle generation model and car-following model) and other critical... Sample PDF
Core Models for State-of-the-Art Microscopic Traffic Simulation and Kay Elements for Applications
Chapter 7
Xia Li
This chapter introduces the concepts of cellular automata (CA) which have been increasingly used for simulating urban dynamics. Simulation and... Sample PDF
Simulating Urban Dynamics Using Cellular Automata
Chapter 8
Youngho Kim
This study proposes methods for space-time diffusion measures and a simulation on crime analyses. A spatial pattern of crimes is a constantly... Sample PDF
Space-Time Measures of Crime Diffuson
Chapter 9
Daniel J. Birks, Susan Donkin, Melanie Wellsmith
This chapter examines the use of computer simulation, specifically agent-based modeling, as a tool for criminologists and its potentially unique... Sample PDF
Synthesis Over Analysis: Towards an Ontology for Volume Crime Simulation
Chapter 10
P. Jeffrey Brantingham, George Tita
Criminal opportunity in most cases is constrained by the fact that motivated offenders and potential targets or victims are not found at the same... Sample PDF
Offender Mobility and Crime Pattern Formation from First Principles
Chapter 11
Xuguang Wang, Lin Liu, John Eck
This chapter presents an innovative agent-based model for crime simulation. The model is built on the integration of geographic information systems... Sample PDF
Crime Simulation Using GIS and Artificial Intelligent Agents
Chapter 12
Elizabeth Groff
It is widely recognized that the spatio-temporal components of human behavior strongly influence where and when people converge in space and time.... Sample PDF
Characterizing the Spatio-Temporal Aspects of Routine Activities and the Geographic Distribution of Street Robbery
Chapter 13
P.L. Brantingham, U. Glasser, P. Jackson, B. Kinney, M. Vajihollahi
Pattern and routine activities theories suggest that through a combination of decisions and innate understandings of environmental cues, likely... Sample PDF
Mastermind: Computational Modeling and Simulation of Spatiotemporal Aspects of Crime in Urban Environments
Chapter 14
Karen L. Hayslett-McCall, Fang Qiu, Kevin M. Curtin, Bryan Chastain, Janis Schubert, Virginia Carver
This chapter presents an innovative approach to the study of the journey to residential burglary. We demonstrate a simulation model that is built... Sample PDF
The Simulation of the Journey to Residential Burglary
Chapter 15
Vasco Furtado, Adriano Melo, Andre L.V. Coelho, Ronaldo Menezes
Experience in the domain of criminology has shown that the spatial distribution of some types of crimes in urban centers follows Zipf’s Law in which... Sample PDF
Simulating Crime Against Properties Using Swarm Intelligence and Social Networks
Chapter 16
Yushim Kim, Ningchuan Xiao
This chapter shows that white-collar crime can be approached using an agent-based model. Fraud in public delivery programs often involves several... Sample PDF
FraudSim: Simulating Fraud in a Public Delivery Program
Chapter 17
Joseph Szakas, Christian Trefftz, Raul Ramirez, Eric Jefferis
Patrolling in a nonrandom, but focused manner is an important activity in law enforcement. The use of geographic information systems, the emerging... Sample PDF
Development of an Intelligent Patrol Routing System Using GIS and Computer Simulations
Chapter 18
Anne Dray, Lorraine Mazerolle, Pascal Perez, Alison Ritter
This chapter describes an agent-based model called SimDrugPolicing that explores the relative impact of three law enforcement strategies—standard... Sample PDF
Drug Law Enforcement in an Agent-Based Model: Simulating the Disruption to Street-Level Drug Markets
Chapter 19
Azahed Alimadad, Peter Borwein, Patricia Brantingham, Paul Brantingham, Vahid Dabbaghian-Abdoly, Ron Ferguson, Ellen Fowler, Amir H. Ghaseminejad, Christopher Giles, Jenny Li, Nahanni Pollard, Alexander Rutherford, Alexa van der Waall
Criminal justice systems are complex. They are composed of several major subsystems, including the police, courts, and corrections, which are in... Sample PDF
Using Varieties of Simulation Modeling for Criminal Justice System Analysis
Chapter 20
John Eck, Lin Liu
Since the beginnings of this millennium, there has been a burgeoning interest in the use of simulation methods for the study of crime. In a... Sample PDF
Varieties of Artificial Crime Analysis: Purpose, Structure, and Evidence in Crime Simulations
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