Customer Oriented PACS

Customer Oriented PACS

Carrison K.S. Tong (Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, HK) and Eric T.T. Wong (Hong Kong Polytechnic Institute, Hong Kong)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-672-3.ch010
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Abstract

During the early development phase of PACS, its implementation was mainly a matter of the radiology department. This is changing rapidly, and PACS planning is increasingly seen in the context of a hospital-wide or regional approach. With increased networking among healthcare institutions and the growing relevance of teleradiology scenarios, PACS strategies must take not only local but also regional and global factors into consideration. For hospitals and healthcare institutions, quality function deployment (QFD) is a helpful tool for developing new systems or services. QFD was originally developed by Yoji Akao in 1966 when the author combined his work in quality assurance and quality control points with function deployment used in Value Engineering. QFD has been described as “a method to transform user demands into design quality, to deploy the functions forming quality, and to deploy methods for achieving the design quality into subsystems and component parts, and ultimately to specific elements of the manufacturing process” (Mizuno & Akao, 1994). QFD is designed to help planners focus on characteristics of a new or existing product or service from the viewpoints of market segments, company, or technology-development needs. The technique yields graphs and matrices. It is widely accepted that benefits of using QFD in the healthcare industry include: • Increased customer satisfaction • Improved quality • Time efficiency • Multidiscilplinary teamwork orientation • Documentation orientation The QFD method has been successfully applied to many industrial and manufacturing processes in order to ensure that quality is built into products at the outset rather than tested for after their production. However, this method has rarely been applied in the healthcare industry.
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Background

During the early development phase of PACS, its implementation was mainly a matter of the radiology department. This is changing rapidly, and PACS planning is increasingly seen in the context of a hospital-wide or regional approach. With increased networking among healthcare institutions and the growing relevance of teleradiology scenarios, PACS strategies must take not only local but also regional and global factors into consideration.

For hospitals and healthcare institutions, quality function deployment (QFD) is a helpful tool for developing new systems or services. QFD was originally developed by Yoji Akao in 1966 when the author combined his work in quality assurance and quality control points with function deployment used in Value Engineering. QFD has been described as “a method to transform user demands into design quality, to deploy the functions forming quality, and to deploy methods for achieving the design quality into subsystems and component parts, and ultimately to specific elements of the manufacturing process” (Mizuno & Akao, 1994). QFD is designed to help planners focus on characteristics of a new or existing product or service from the viewpoints of market segments, company, or technology-development needs. The technique yields graphs and matrices. It is widely accepted that benefits of using QFD in the healthcare industry include:

  • Increased customer satisfaction

  • Improved quality

  • Time efficiency

  • Multidiscilplinary teamwork orientation

  • Documentation orientation

The QFD method has been successfully applied to many industrial and manufacturing processes in order to ensure that quality is built into products at the outset rather than tested for after their production. However, this method has rarely been applied in the healthcare industry.

Moores (2005) presents a study of the potential for applying the QFD method to the analysis of the framework for safety management contained in the Ionizing Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations (IRMER) of 2000. In his chapter, the term quality is used to describe the degree to which the needs and requirements of the customer are fulfilled. In the case of diagnostic radiology, it was noted that safety management must not only be concerned with radiation protection but, more importantly, with the accuracy and consistency of any diagnostic outcome. According to Moores, both should be treated as important patient needs. A first stage analysis of IRMER 2000 was presented and assessed how patients’ needs had been expressed by the individual IRMER components of justification, optimization, clinical audit, expert advice, equipment, and training. The analysis involved a QFD assessment by four radiation protection experts with over 100 man-years of experience. A second stage analysis assessed how the individual IRMER components had been engineered into a safety management framework through specific requirements embodied in IRMER 2000. The results of this assessment were discussed in terms of clinical, human, operational management, and equipment related aspects of the radiological process. The study highlights how the QFD approach may be applied to engineer specific aspects of radiological practice that play a key role in ensuring that patients’ needs are fully met. As an example, clinical audit requirements were analyzed by means of the QFD method to indicate the design requirements of information and knowledge based systems that could provide the necessary information for this type of key management activity.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction  (pages 1-27)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is a filmless and computerized method of communicating and storing medical image data such as... Sample PDF
Introduction
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Chapter 2
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
The protection of information for a healthcare organization, in any form, while in storage, processing, or transport, from being available to any... Sample PDF
ISO 27000 Information Security Management System
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Chapter 3
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
PACS disasters can, and do, appear in a variety of forms including storage hard disk failure, file corruption, network breakdown, and server... Sample PDF
High Availability Technologies for PACS
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Chapter 4
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Fundamental to ISO 27000 (ISO/IEC 27001:2005, 2005) is the concept of an information security management system (ISMS). The information security... Sample PDF
Implementation of Information Security Management System (ISMS)
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Chapter 5
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Filmless hospital is transforming at an unprecedented rate. Physicians, nurses, clinicians, pharmacists, radiologists, emergency departments, local... Sample PDF
Planning for a Filmless Hospital
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Chapter 6
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
More rapidly than any technological advance in medical history, filmless hospital is changing the clinical and business aspects of radiology... Sample PDF
Design of a Filmless Hospital
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Chapter 7
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
A PACS has tremendous benefits (Bryan, Weatherburn, Watkins, Buxton, 1999) and values outside of radiology as well as internally. The biggest... Sample PDF
Implementation of Filmless Hospital
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Chapter 8
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
As PACS gains widespread use, the importance of Quality Control (QC), Quality Assurance (QA), and Business Continuity Plan (BCP) in PACS is rising.... Sample PDF
Quality Control, Quality Assurance, and Business Continuity Plan in PACS
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Chapter 9
PACS Quality Dimensions  (pages 140-153)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
A large number of studies have attempted to identify the factors that contribute to good PACS quality, such as that shown by Reiner et al (2003).... Sample PDF
PACS Quality Dimensions
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Chapter 10
Customer Oriented PACS  (pages 154-169)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
During the early development phase of PACS, its implementation was mainly a matter of the radiology department. This is changing rapidly, and PACS... Sample PDF
Customer Oriented PACS
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Chapter 11
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Nowadays it is hard to think of any applications in modern society in which electronic systems do not play a significant role. In aerospace and... Sample PDF
Design for PACS Reliability
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Chapter 12
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
There are some medical errors for which preventability is rarely questioned. These include medical errors such as wrong site surgery, wrong... Sample PDF
PACS Failure Mode and Effects
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Chapter 13
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Economically speaking, it is interesting to see that over the years, the question as to whether PACS is cost-justifiable has not been easier to... Sample PDF
PACS Network Traffic Control
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Chapter 14
Human Factors and Culture  (pages 225-243)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Human factors engineering (HFE) is the science of designing systems to fit human capabilities and limitations. These include limitations in... Sample PDF
Human Factors and Culture
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Chapter 15
PACS Monitoring  (pages 244-263)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
The present study advocates the application of statistical process control (SPC) as a performance monitoring tool for a PACS. The objective of... Sample PDF
PACS Monitoring
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Chapter 16
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
To illustrate the benefits of implementing QM in PACS, a successful case based on the Six Sigma approach is given below. It involves a project... Sample PDF
Quality Management Benefits
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Chapter 17
Epilogue  (pages 288-297)
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
Today’s filmless radiology through PACS provides greater speed and superior image quality. However, when workflow is encumbered by inefficiencies... Sample PDF
Epilogue
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Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
About the Authors