This chapter deals with the future of scholarly publications as a key element of the knowledge production process of science and research. Publications are both at the input and the output side of knowledge creation and an important means of communication among scientists. In the age of cyberscience, or e-science, the publishing system is changing rapidly and we expect more fundamental changes to come as soon as most scholarly publishing has gone online and researchers have started to explore the new opportunities. A new kind of infrastructure is emerging that will add new actors to the traditional ones and potentially adds new functions and mechanisms. The chapter outlines the status quo and new technological as well as organizational options for scholarly publishing and develops a scenario of the next generation academic publishing system. It concludes with practical recommendations for designing the scholarly e-publishing cyberinfrastructure of the future.