Despite the increasing numbers of online courses, there have been several concerns and criticisms related to teaching and learning in e-Learning. Previous research has suggested that students are often dissatisfied and frustrated with their e-Learning courses. A more important issue is that e-Learning has not led to pedagogical changes. A large percentage of e-Learning courses have been developed to deliver simple factual knowledge through tutorial-based instruction. In seeking a paradigm shift from information delivery-centered to learner-centered e-Learning approaches, this chapter suggests that theoretically and empirically grounded design frameworks are required, and that strategies for interactive and collaborative learning should be considered and incorporated in designing learner-centered environments. To identify instructional design strategies, the author critically reviewed and analyzed relevant case studies. Three design guidelines are presented with specific strategies and examples: 1) meaningful opportunities for online collaboration, 2) minimization of communication barriers and maximization of idea sharing, and 3) increasing perceived levels of social presence.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Collaborative Learning: Collaborative learning is an instructional approach in which a small number of learners interact together and share their knowledge and skills in order to reach a specific learning goal.
Vicarious Interaction: Vicarious interaction is a type of interactions that learners interact internally.
Interaction: Interaction is a reciprocal communication and learning process between humans or between human and non-human to achieve a certain goal: • Learner - Content interaction; • Learner - Instructor interaction; • Learner - Learner interaction; • Learner - Interface interaction
Blended Learning: Blended learning is any combination of learning delivery methods, mostly face-to-face instruction with asynchronous or/and synchronous computer technologies.
Synchronous Communication: Synchronous communication is a form of communication that people send data at the same time (e.g. online chat rooms).
Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC): CMC is any form of communication among people who interact with each other through computer-mediated technologies.
Asynchronous Communication: Asynchronous communication is a form of communication that people send data at different times (e.g. online discussion forum).