This chapter presents results from a meta-analysis that compares the effectiveness of Web-based instruction (WBI) to classroom instruction (CI). The results suggest that when the same instructional methods are used, WBI and CI are equally effective for teaching declarative knowledge. However, the instructional methods and course design features incorporated in WBI are critical factors in determining trainees’ knowledge acquisition. Specifically, the chapter examines the influence of lecture, human interaction, and learner control on the effectiveness of WBI. Based on the findings, the authors provide the following recommendations for increasing learning in WBI: (1) require trainees to be active, (2) incorporate a variety of instructional methods, (3) offer computer and Internet skills courses, (4) provide trainees with access to lecture notes, (5) incorporate synchronous human interaction, and (6) provide trainees with learner control.