Disability Determinations and Personal Health Records

Disability Determinations and Personal Health Records

Elaine A. Blechman (University of Colorado at Boulder, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 10
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-016-5.ch005
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Abstract

Newly disabled workers are often unemployed, uninsured, and indigent. They are in desperate need of Social Security OASDI monthly benefits, and the Medicare health insurance that follows 24 months after benefits begin. Applicants must prove that their medical conditions (excluding drug and alcohol abuse) have resulted in severe functional limitations that prevent them from any gainful employment. Delays and denials of benefits result when applicants cannot find or retrieve medical records from providers familiar with their medical history, health status, and functional limitations. The disability application workflow is complex, particularly for applicants with cognitive and mental health impairments. Health information technology (HIT) has been used to automate care delivery workflow through provider-controlled, electronic health record systems (EHRs). Disability applicants’ workflow could, just as well, be automated through consumer-controlled, unbound, and intelligent personal electronic health record systems (PHRs), which are not tethered to a health plan or employer network, and which automatically exchange information updates with authorized providers’ EHRs. Applicants’ PHRs may later prove helpful with self-management of chronic conditions prior to Medicare coverage and with periodic reevaluations of their medical status.
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Introduction

“A 20-year-old worker has a 3 in 10 chance of becoming disabled before reaching retirement age” (http://www.ssa.gov/history/briefhistory3.html). In 1935, President Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act (SSA), creating a contributory system in which workers prepared for their retirement through taxes that they paid while employed. In 1956, an amendment to the Act provided benefits to disabled workers aged 50-64 and disabled adult children. In 1960, President Eisenhower signed an amendment permitting SSA disability benefits for disabled workers of any age and their dependents. In 1996, President Clinton signed a bill (P.L. 104-121) that changed eligibility for SSA disability benefits from a medical condition that prevents work, to a medical condition other than drug addiction or alcoholism that prevents work.

About 48.4 million people received Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) monthly benefits in December 2005. Disabled workers and their dependents were 17% of OASDI beneficiaries, their average monthly benefits were $938. In 2005, OASDI payments exceeded $44 billion a month, approached $521 billion for the year, and represented 4.2% of the U.S. gross domestic product. At the same time, employees, self-employed workers, and employers contributed $593 billion to the OASDI trust funds (SSA, 2007).

Two recent studies indirectly suggest the importance of SSA disability benefits. In Sweden, 197 individuals granted disability pensions reported less illness, larger social networks, and less work and family role limitations than 96 individuals who did not receive disability pensions (Ydreborg, Ekberg, & Nordlund, 2006). In the U.S., a survey of 4,918 veterans found that their odds of impoverishment were reduced considerably if they applied for and received VA benefits for posttraumatic stress disorder (Murdoch, van Ryn, Hodges, & Cowper, 2005).

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Joseph Tan
Acknowledgment
E. Vance Wilson
Chapter 1
Juanita Dawson, Bengisu Tulu, Thomas A. Horan
This chapter provides a conceptual foundation by exploring the existing literature on traditional healthcare, patient-centered healthcare, and the... Sample PDF
Towards Patient-Centered Care: The Role of E-Health in Enabling Patient Access to Health Information
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Chapter 2
Alejandro Mauro
This chapter introduces a series of techniques and tools useful for developing patient-centered e-health. As information technology (IT) is... Sample PDF
Patient-Centered E-Health Design
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Chapter 3
Jan-Are K. Johnsen
In this chapter, we look at some fundamental aspects of communicating about ourselves and our health through technology. In particular, we examine... Sample PDF
Connecting with Ourselves and Others Online: Psychological Aspects of Online Health Communication
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Chapter 4
Ebrahim Randeree
An increasing focus on e-health and a governmental push to improve healthcare quality while giving patients more control of their health data have... Sample PDF
Personal Health Records: Patients in Control
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Chapter 5
Elaine A. Blechman
Newly disabled workers are often unemployed, uninsured, and indigent. They are in desperate need of Social Security OASDI monthly benefits, and the... Sample PDF
Disability Determinations and Personal Health Records
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Chapter 6
E-Health Marketing  (pages 70-80)
Muhammad F. Walji, John A. Valenza, Jiajie Zhang
In this chapter, we review key concepts, using the marketing mix framework, to identify the needs of healthcare consumers, and the tools and... Sample PDF
E-Health Marketing
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Chapter 7
Olli P. Järvinen
This chapter introduces the privacy management framework as a means of studying patient-centered e-health. The chapter raises some important issues... Sample PDF
Privacy Management of Patient-Centered E-Health
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Chapter 8
Richard Klein
Patient-centered e-health (PCEH) offerings see the emergence of divergent, new third parties, through initiatives, including (a) medical content... Sample PDF
Trust in Patient-Centered E-Health
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Chapter 9
John Powell, Natalie Armstrong
This chapter deals with the principles and practice of patient and public involvement in e-health research, and discusses some of the issues raised.... Sample PDF
Involving Patients and the Public in E-Health Research
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Chapter 10
Stefano Forti, Barbara Purin, Claudio Eccher
This chapter presents a case study of using interaction design methods for exploring and testing usability and user experience of a Personal Health... Sample PDF
Using Interaction Design to Improve Usability of a PHR User Interface Based on Visual Elements
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Chapter 11
Jiao Ma
This chapter explores the use of Web sites to provide patients with understandable information about the quality and price of healthcare (healthcare... Sample PDF
Healthcare Quality and Cost Transparency Using Web-Based Tools
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Chapter 12
Ann L. Fruhling
This chapter is drawn from a comprehensive study that examined the effect Human-Computer Interaction usability factors had on rural residents’... Sample PDF
Perceptions of E-Health in Rural Communities
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Chapter 13
Elizabeth Cummings, Stephen Chau, Paul Turner
This chapter explores how in developing patient-centred e-health systems it is possible to accommodate heterogeneous characteristics of end-users... Sample PDF
Assessing a Patient-Centered E-Health Approach to Chronic Disease Self-Management
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Chapter 14
Michel J. Sassene
This chapter investigates asthmatics’ reasons for not adopting an e-health system for asthma selfmanagement. An understanding of these reasons is... Sample PDF
Incompatible Images: Asthmatics' Non-Use of an E-Health System for Asthma Self-Management
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Chapter 15
Linda M. Gallant, Cynthia Irizarry, Gloria M. Boone
An extended version of the technology acceptance model (TAM) is applied to study hospital Web sites, one specific area of e-health. In a review of... Sample PDF
Exploring the Technology Adoption Needs of Patients Using E-Health
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Chapter 16
E. Vance Wilson, Nancy K. Lankton
This chapter presents a new rational-objective (R-O) model of e-health use that accounts for effects of facilitating conditions as well as patients’... Sample PDF
Predicting Patients' Use of Provider-Delivered E-Health: The Role of Facilitating Conditions
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About the Contributors