Electronic Data Interchange

Electronic Data Interchange

Ashutosh Deshmukh (Penn State University - Erie, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-738-6.ch004
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Abstract

Before the dawn of the computer age, intra- and inter-business activities, especially purchasing and selling of products and services, were paper-intensive. Paper documents such as purchase orders, invoices, shipping notices, and bills of lading needed to be prepared in multiple copies. These copies had to be approved, signed, preserved in files for a certain duration, forwarded to trading partners and processed in a myriad of ways. Purchasing and selling activities rippled through the entire organization and tied in manufacturing, logistics, accounting, finance and human resources, among other areas. The documents then multiplied exponentially. Additionally, these documents were organization-specific, meaning there were no standard formats. The lack of standard format resulted in extra processing time; incoming purchase orders needed to be converted into the organization’s sales order. In the 1960s, giant corporations had to deal with a mountain of paperwork and employ armies of clerks to process those documents. The associated costs and their effect on the bottom line alarmed managers. The idea of electronic surrogates for these documents and Electronic Data Processing (EDP) began to look attractive. In the late 1960s, the idea of an electronic exchange of standardized documents had taken a firm root in the transportation industry. The age of EDP has arrived and EDI was on the forefront of the wave and became more sophisticated over the next several decades.

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Preface
Ashutosh Deshmukh
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1
Ashutosh Deshmukh
The term digital refers to digits or numbers; however, in the computer science lexicon this term refers to the representation of information in 0s... Sample PDF
A Framework for Digital Accounting
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Chapter 2
Ashutosh Deshmukh
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, mega corporations of the day began to handle data that rivaled government requirements. This data could not be... Sample PDF
The Evolution of Accounting Software
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Chapter 3
Ashutosh Deshmukh
The Internet spins a vast web of information across the globe. Data and information flow freely — available to anyone for learning, understanding... Sample PDF
The XML-Based Web Languages and Accounting
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Chapter 4
Ashutosh Deshmukh
Before the dawn of the computer age, intra- and inter-business activities, especially purchasing and selling of products and services, were... Sample PDF
Electronic Data Interchange
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Chapter 5
The Revenue Cycle  (pages 131-189)
Ashutosh Deshmukh
The revenue cycle deals with the delivery of products or services to customers and consequent collection of cash from customers. The standard... Sample PDF
The Revenue Cycle
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Chapter 6
The Expenditure Cycle  (pages 190-229)
Ashutosh Deshmukh
The expenditure cycle consists of the ordering of goods and services from suppliers and consequent payments to the suppliers. The generic... Sample PDF
The Expenditure Cycle
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Chapter 7
The Conversation Cycle  (pages 230-259)
Ashutosh Deshmukh
The conversion cycle spans a range of activities — product design, production planning and control, and cost accounting. Product design is a... Sample PDF
The Conversation Cycle
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Chapter 8
The Gender Ledger Cycle  (pages 260-292)
Ashutosh Deshmukh
The general ledger cycle consists of posting of entries from special journals, subsidiary ledgers, and general journal to general ledger; as well as... Sample PDF
The Gender Ledger Cycle
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Chapter 9
Ashutosh Deshmukh
A dominant trend in information technology is the convergence of different software functionalities. Even after the dot-com bust or, perhaps because... Sample PDF
Financial Management, Strategic Management and Digital Accounting
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Chapter 10
Ashutosh Deshmukh
Internal controls have existed since the dawn of business activities. Internal controls are basically systems of checks and balances. The purpose is... Sample PDF
Controls, Security, and Audit in Online Digital Accounting
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About the Author