Emotional Modeling in an Interactive Robotic Head

Emotional Modeling in an Interactive Robotic Head

Oscar Deniz (ETS Ingenieros Industriales, UCLM, Spain), Javier Lorenzo (SIANI Institute, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain), Mario Hernández (SIANI Institute, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain) and Modesto Castrillón (SIANI Institute, Universit)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-354-8.ch001
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Abstract

Social intelligence seems to obviously require emotions. People have emotions, recognize them in others and also express them. A wealth of information is conveyed through facial expressions, voice tone, etc. If robots can recognize and express emotions, the interaction with the user will be improved because the robot will be able to analyze his/her affective state and choose a different action course depending on it. Thus, it seems clear that any attempt to imitate human social abilities should consider modeling emotions or affective states. This chapter describes the emotional model and implementation of CASIMIRO, a prototype social robot built by the authors. CASIMIRO is a complex robot with multimodal capabilities defined by a number of software modules. Examples of user interactions will be also shown that suggest that the model is appropriate for regulating the behavior of the robot.
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Introduction

Although the use of emotions in robots is still under debate, in the last years many authors have argued that the traditional “Dr Spock” paradigm for solving problems (eminently rational) may not be appropriate for modeling social behavior. Rational decisions allow us to cope with the complex world that we live in. Thus, the rational selection among different options is crucial for survival and goal accomplishment. However, any agent (human or artificial) whose actions are guided only by purely rational decisions would be in serious trouble. Weighing all the possible options would prevent the agent from taking any decision at all. There is evidence that people who have suffered damage to the prefrontal lobes so that they can no longer show emotions are very intelligent and sensible, but they cannot make decisions (Picard, 1997; Damasio, 1994). A so-called “Commander Kirk” paradigm assumes that some aspects of human intelligence, particularly the ability to take decisions in dynamic and unpredictable environments, depend on emotions.

There is another interpretation, however, which makes clear the importance that emotion modeling may have in a robot. Social intelligence seems to obviously require emotions.

People have emotions, recognize them in others and also express them. A wealth of information is conveyed through facial expressions, voice tone, etc. If robots can recognize, express and probably have emotions, the interaction with the user will be improved because the robot will be able to analyze the affective state of the user and choose a different action course depending on it (Hernández et al., 2004). Thus, it seems clear that any attempt to imitate human social abilities should consider modeling emotions or affective states. In fact, a field called Affective Computing (Tao & Tan, 2005) is developing which aims at developing engineering tools for measuring, modeling, reasoning about, and responding to affect.

This chapter describes the emotional model implemented in a prototype sociable robot called CASIMIRO, see Figure 1. CASIMIRO (Deniz et al., 2006; Deniz et al., 2007) is an animal-like face with basic interaction abilities achieved through computer vision, audio signal processing, speech generation, motor control, etc. The abilities include omnidirectional and stereo vision, face detection, head nod/shake gesture detection (for answering questions), person detection and tracking (using the neck), sound localization, speech, owner recognition, etc. The focus is in providing useful techniques for researchers working on emotional modeling for interactive robots.

Figure 1.

CASIMIRO

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Background

Many emotional models have been proposed both within the Robotics community and in psychology (see (Fong et al., 2003) and also the Emotion Home Page (E. Hudlicka & J.M. Fellous, 2008)). The most well known model for human emotion representation is perhaps that of Russell (Russell, 1980), which considers that emotions fall in a bidimensional space, with orthogonal valence and arousal components, see Figure 2.

Figure 2.

Arousal and valence emotional space

This bidimensional space (also called circumplex model) has received wide support in the literature (Carney & Colvin, 2005). Many forms of human emotional experience (judgment of the similarity between pairs of affect terms, self-reports of current emotion and from perceptions of similarity between static photographs of expressed emotion) point to an ordering of basic emotions around the perimeter of a circle with arousal and valence axes.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Craig DeLancey
Preface
Jordi Vallverdú, David Casacuberta
Chapter 1
Oscar Deniz, Javier Lorenzo, Mario Hernández, Modesto Castrillón
Social intelligence seems to obviously require emotions. People have emotions, recognize them in others and also express them. A wealth of... Sample PDF
Emotional Modeling in an Interactive Robotic Head
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Chapter 2
Cyril Laurier, Perfecto Herrera
Creating emotionally sensitive machines will significantly enhance the interaction between humans and machines. In this chapter we focus on enabling... Sample PDF
Automatic Detection of Emotion in Music: Interaction with Emotionally Sensitive Machines
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Chapter 3
Christoph Bartneck, Michael J. Lyons
The human face plays a central role in most forms of natural human interaction so we may expect that computational methods for analysis of facial... Sample PDF
Facial Expression Analysis, Modeling and Synthesis: Overcoming the Limitations of Artificial Intelligence with the Art of the Soluble
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Chapter 4
Sajal Chandra Banik, Keigo Watanabe, Maki K. Habib, Kiyotaka Izumi
Multi-robot team work is necessary for complex tasks which cannot be performed by a single robot. To get the required performance and reliability... Sample PDF
Multirobot Team Work with Benevolent Characters: The Roles of Emotions
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Chapter 5
Matthias Scheutz, Paul Schermerhorn
Effective decision-making under real-world conditions can be very difficult as purely rational methods of decision-making are often not feasible or... Sample PDF
Affective Goal and Task Selection for Social Robots
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Chapter 6
Christopher P. Lee-Johnson, Dale A. Carnegie
The hypothesis that artificial emotion-like mechanisms can improve the adaptive performance of robots and intelligent systems has gained... Sample PDF
Robotic Emotions: Navigation with Feeling
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Chapter 7
C. Gros
All self-active living beings need to solve the motivational problem—the question of what to do at any moment of their life. For humans and... Sample PDF
Emotions, Diffusive Emotional Control and the Motivational Problem for Autonomous Cognitive Systems
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Chapter 8
Bruce J. MacLennan
This chapter addresses the “Hard Problem” of consciousness in the context of robot emotions. The Hard Problem, as defined by Chalmers, refers to the... Sample PDF
Robots React, but Can They Feel?
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Chapter 9
Mercedes García-Ordaz, Rocío Carrasco-Carrasco, Francisco José Martínez-López
It is contended here that the emotional elements and features of human reasoning should be taken into account when designing the personality of... Sample PDF
Personality and Emotions in Robotics from the Gender Perspective
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Chapter 10
Antoni Gomila, Alberto Amengual
In this chapter we raise some of the moral issues involved in the current development of robotic autonomous agents. Starting from the connection... Sample PDF
Moral Emotions for Autonomous Agents
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Chapter 11
Pietro Cipresso, Jean-Marie Dembele, Marco Villamira
In this work, we present an analytical model of hyper-inflated economies and develop a computational model that permits us to consider expectations... Sample PDF
An Emotional Perspective for Agent-Based Computational Economics
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Chapter 12
Michel Aubé
The Commitment Theory of Emotions is issued from a careful scrutiny of emotional behavior in humans and animals, as reported in the literature on... Sample PDF
Unfolding Commitments Management: A Systemic View of Emotions
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Chapter 13
Sigerist J. Rodríguez, Pilar Herrero, Olinto J. Rodríguez
Today, realism and coherence are highly searched qualities in agent’s behavior; but these qualities cannot be achieved completely without... Sample PDF
A Cognitive Appraisal Based Approach for Emotional Representation
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Chapter 14
Clément Raïevsky, François Michaud
Emotion plays several important roles in the cognition of human beings and other life forms, and is therefore a legitimate inspiration for providing... Sample PDF
Emotion Generation Based on a Mismatch Theory of Emotions for Situated Agents
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Chapter 15
Artificial Surprise  (pages 267-291)
Luis Macedo, Amilcar Cardoso, Rainer Reisenzein, Emiliano Lorini
This chapter reviews research on computational models of surprise. Part 1 begins with a description of the phenomenon of surprise in humans, reviews... Sample PDF
Artificial Surprise
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Chapter 16
Tom Adi
A new theory of emotions is derived from the semantics of the language of emotions. The sound structures of 36 Old Arabic word roots that express... Sample PDF
A Theory of Emotions Based on Natural Language Semantics
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Chapter 17
Huma Shah, Kevin Warwick
The Turing Test, originally configured as a game for a human to distinguish between an unseen and unheard man and woman, through a text-based... Sample PDF
Emotion in the Turing Test: A Downward Trend for Machines in Recent Loebner Prizes
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Chapter 18
Félix Francisco Ramos Corchado, Héctor Rafael Orozco Aguirre, Luis Alfonso Razo Ruvalcaba
Emotions play an essential role in the cognitive processes of an avatar and are a crucial element for modeling its perception, learning, decision... Sample PDF
Artificial Emotional Intelligence in Virtual Creatures
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Chapter 19
Sarantos I. Psycharis
In our study we collected data with respect to cognitive variables (learning outcome), metacognitive indicators (knowledge about cognition and... Sample PDF
Physics and Cognitive-Emotional-Metacognitive Variables: Learning Performance in the Environment of CTAT
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Chapter 20
Anthony G. Francis Jr., Manish Mehta, Ashwin Ram
Believable agents designed for long-term interaction with human users need to adapt to them in a way which appears emotionally plausible while... Sample PDF
Emotional Memory and Adaptive Personalities
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Chapter 21
Dorel Gorga, Daniel K. Schneider
The purpose of this contribution is to discuss conceptual issues and challenges related to the integration of emotional agents in the design of... Sample PDF
Computer-Based Learning Environments with Emotional Agents
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Chapter 22
Emotional Ambient Media  (pages 443-459)
Artur Lugmayr, Tillmann Dorsch, Pabo Roman Humanes
The “medium is the message”: nowadays the medium as such is non-distinguishable from its presentation environment. However, what is the medium in an... Sample PDF
Emotional Ambient Media
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Chapter 23
Jordi Vallverdú, David Casacuberta
During the previous stage of our research we developed a computer simulation (called ‘The Panic Room’ or, more simply, ‘TPR’) dealing with synthetic... Sample PDF
Modelling Hardwired Synthetic Emotions: TPR 2.0
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Chapter 24
Cecile K.M. Crutzen, Hans-Werner Hein
A vision of future daily life is explored in Ambient Intelligence (AmI). It follows the assumption that information technology should disappear into... Sample PDF
Invisibility and Visibility: The Shadows of Artificial Intelligence
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About the Contributors