Enterprise Architecture and Governance Challenges for Orchestrating Public-Private Cooperation

Enterprise Architecture and Governance Challenges for Orchestrating Public-Private Cooperation

Bram Klievink (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands), Wijnand Derks (Telematica Instituut, The Netherlands) and Marijn Janssen (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-068-4.ch012
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Abstract

The ambition of the Dutch government is to create a demand-driven government by means of effective use of information and communication technology. This requires not only public, but also private parties to interact with each other. This is a complex endeavour as private and public organizations have their own goals, systems and architectures that need to be coordinated. Within this setting, a new architecture should be created for managing and orchestrating the interactions among governmental and private organizations. In this chapter we present an architecture aimed at supporting the coordination of public and private parties for creating a one stop shop and the main challenges therein. We found that a publicprivate service network poses higher requirements on the architecture of a service network, whereas the variety in systems of the various organizations and different aims make it more difficult to develop such an architecture. Furthermore, it is difficult to isolate architectural challenges from governance aspects, as many architectural issues need to be complemented by governance mechanisms. Architecture and governance cannot be considered in isolation.
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Introduction

It is the ambition of many governments to improve service-delivery to citizens. One way to do this is by ensuring a widespread and effective use of information and communication technology to create a demand-driven government. Many governmental organizations offer products and services to citizens. From the citizen’s perspective, the services provided by one organization are often only one part of the total service process they require. From their point of view, their situation involves multiple steps to be taken, and some of these steps have to be fulfilled by services performed by various governmental organizations. This is especially true in countries with highly fragmented governments where the government consists of many agencies and organizations that each have a relatively high degree of autonomy. To fulfil the objective of demand-driven e-government, the focus should shift from services offered by a single organization to an integrated service-delivery process fulfilling citizens’ needs. From the citizen’s perspective, these services do not stop at organizational boundaries. Therefore, many citizens’ requests require multiple organizations to interact with each other. These cross-agency service-delivery processes need to be coordinated.

In the Netherlands, this call for coordination recently gave rise to the development of a national reference architecture (for a comprehensive description see the chapter ‘A Service-Oriented Reference Architecture for E-Government’ by Lankhorst and Bayens in this book). The Dutch Government Reference Architecture (abbreviated as NORA (Nederlandse Overheid Referentie Architectuur) in Dutch) provides a common ground for developing the electronic government (Kenniscentrum, 2007). It consists of design principles arranged by an architecture framework based on the Zachman framework and models for the (re)engineering of (electronic) government service delivery (ICTU, 2007). The NORA is based on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), which is a fundamental principle, but it also includes very specific guidelines. Some of those principles are mandatory (by law), some are advisory. The task of this reference architecture is to guide public organizations in the direction of a responsive, demand-driven and efficient government.

Demand-driven service-delivery does not stop at the boundaries of individual organizations, nor does it at the boundaries between the public and the private sector. Private parties might be involved in the service provisioning, in several ways. Sometimes governmental services are funded by public money, but are in fact executed by private organizations. This might be considered a form of outsourcing. Furthermore, services provided by private parties can be closely related to governmental services, even so close that from the citizen’s perspective, it is part of the same service-delivery process. Health care is a good example, in countries that publicly fund basic health care services, the actual care may be provided by privately held organizations. From the citizen’s perspective this does not consist of separate processes at the government and the health care provider, but it is one and the same process. Finally, governmental organization might deliver their services using channels operated by private parties (Janssen, Kuk, & Wagenaar, 2008). For example, when buying a car, the car dealer also registers the car and the new owner at the responsible governmental agency. In these cases, truly demand-driven e-government requires cooperation with private organizations as well. In this chapter, the cooperation between public and private organizations will be denoted as public-private service networks, or service networks for short.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
John A. Zachman
Preface
Pallab Saha
Acknowledgment
Pallab Saha
Chapter 1
Pallab Saha
Countries across the world are pushing their frontiers in governance in the move to information economy, and governments play a pivotal role in this... Sample PDF
A Methodology for Government Transformation with Enterprise Architecture
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Chapter 2
Marc M. Lankhorst, Guido I.H.M. Bayens
This chapter describes the development and future directions of a service-oriented reference architecture for the Dutch government. For several... Sample PDF
A Service-Oriented Reference Architecture for E-Government
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Chapter 3
Amit Bhagwat
This chapter introduces the concept of Beacon Architecture as a formalized and ordered grouping of architectural elements, describing the... Sample PDF
Role of Beacon Architecture in Mitigating Enterprise Architecture Challenges of the Public Sector
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Chapter 4
Hong Sik Kim, Sungwook Moon
Quite a good amount of time has been spent seeking appropriate solutions to handle the giant information technology expenditure not only in... Sample PDF
Maturity Model Based on Quality Concept of Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA)
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Chapter 5
Alan Dyer
Enterprise Architecture is the organising logic for business processes and Information Technology infrastructure, the purpose of which is to create... Sample PDF
Measuring the Benefits of Enterprise Architecture: Knowledge Management Maturity
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Chapter 6
William S. Boddie
An effective enterprise architecture (EA) capability enables an organization to develop sound enterprise plans, make informed human, materiel, and... Sample PDF
The Criticality of Transformational Leadership to Advancing United States Government Enterprise Architecture Adoption
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Chapter 7
Jay Ramanathan
Public institutions that are organized in hierarchies find it difficult to address crisis or other unique requirements that demand networked... Sample PDF
Adaptive IT Architecture as a Catalyst for Network Capability in Government
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Chapter 8
Chris Aitken
This chapter describes a design integrity framework for developing models of any entity of interest at various levels of abstraction. The design... Sample PDF
Design Integrity and Enterprise Architecture Governance
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Chapter 9
Dwight V. Toavs
Few government executives can explain the enterprise architecture of his or her agency, and it is rare to find a political executive who is able to... Sample PDF
Policy Mapping: Relating Enterprise Architecture to Policy Goals
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Chapter 10
Klaus D. Niemann
A comprehensive enterprise architecture management has strategic and operative aspects. Strategic tasks cover the identification of appropriate... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture Management and its Role in IT Governance and IT Investment Planning
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Chapter 11
Vassilios Peristeras, Konstantinos Tarabanis
Departing from the lack of coherent and ready-to-use models and domain descriptions for public administration, we present here our effort to build a... Sample PDF
The GEA: Governance Enterprise Architecture-Framework and Models
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Chapter 12
Bram Klievink, Wijnand Derks, Marijn Janssen
The ambition of the Dutch government is to create a demand-driven government by means of effective use of information and communication technology.... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture and Governance Challenges for Orchestrating Public-Private Cooperation
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Chapter 13
Neil Fairhead, John Good
This chapter provides an approach to Enterprise Architecture that is people-led, as a contrast to being led by technology or modelling methodology.... Sample PDF
People-Led Enterprise Architecture
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Chapter 14
Timothy Biggert
This chapter provides a case study on how the U.S. Office of Personnel Management has led the establishment of the Human Resources Line of Business... Sample PDF
Using Enterprise Architecture to Transform Service Delivery: The U.S. Federal Government's Human Resources Line of Business
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Chapter 15
Scott Bernard, Shuyuan Mary Ho
Government agencies are committing an increasing amount of resources to information security and data privacy solutions in order to meet legal and... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture as Context and Method for Designing and Implementing Information Security and Data Privacy Controls in Government Agencies
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Chapter 16
John Mo, Laszlo Nemes
With a plethora of architectures, modelling techniques and methodologies on offer, it is difficult to decide how to begin building an enterprise and... Sample PDF
Architecture Based Engineering of Enterprises with Government Involvement
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Chapter 17
Leonidas G. Anthopoulos
E-government evolves according to strategic plans with the coordination of central Governments. This top-down procedure succeeds in slow but... Sample PDF
Collaborative Enterprise Architecture for Municipal Environments
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Chapter 18
Nigel Martin
This chapter describes the development and use of government enterprise architectures for the framing and alignment of the core business processes... Sample PDF
Government Enterprise Architectures: Enabling the Alignment of Business Processes and Information Systems
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About the Contributors