Evaluation Platform for Large Scale P2P Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Evaluation Platform for Large Scale P2P Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Raphaël Kummer (University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland), Peter Kropf (University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland), Jean-Frédéric Wagen (TIC Institute-University of Applied Sciences of Fribourg, Switzerland) and Timothée Maret (TIC Institute, University of Applied Sciences of Fribourg, Switzerland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-715-7.ch018
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Abstract

Many innovative P2P algorithms designed for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) have been designed to scale smoothly when handling a very large number of nodes and transmissions. To cope with the complexity of software development for large-scale MANETs, simulations are widely used instead because hardware implementations are too costly. Simulations are very well suited to testing and evaluating concepts, but when implementing algorithms for testing on target systems, unexpected problems can often surface. Thus, once simulations have provided satisfactory results, emulation is a more desirable approach for detecting and handling unexpected behavior before committing to large-scale deployment. In particular, given that large P2P testbeds require a large number of devices spread over a prohibitive space and are limited by complex programming models, the authors are featuring a Java-based emulator called Freemote. To demonstrate some of the practical advantages of combining simulation and emulation, Freemote makes it possible to integrate real and emulated nodes, and the real nodes (JMotes) run exactly the same Java programs as emulated nodes. Since the JMotes are still not very widely used, the Freemote emulator and JMotes have been designed to be compatible with the more popular Berkeley’s motes. Furthermore, remarkable visualization and development tools have been implemented to undertake large-scale emulation of ad-hoc algorithms, featuring a high level of realism. Freemote has been tested in emulations for up to 10,000 nodes, distributed over ten computers (refer to a preceding chapter of this book “P2P Information Lookup, Collection and Distribution in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network” for a test application running DHT algorithms). In this chapter, the authors present the Freemote platform along with the results of a brief comparison of emulation and simulation experiments.
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Introduction

P2P systems first emerged as overlays stacked on top of the Internet for many useful applications including file sharing, VoIP, distributed data storage (Freenet), collaborative tools, etc. (Khan & Wierzbicki, 2008). Their success is usually based on the peer-to-peer property intrinsic to the Internet, providing transmission routes between end-nodes. In MANETs, the situation is different because end-nodes can also act as routers; or more precisely wireless routers. This means that each end-node/router has at least one wireless link to all physical neighbors defined by its radio coverage area. MANETs also differ from the classical Internet because their wireless links are usually much less reliable than fixed links, and are often impaired by congestion. Also, assumptions generally made regarding bidirectional links may not be true, given differences between nodes caused by implementations, remaining battery power levels, time variances, physical environments, etc. Finally each end-node/router’s participation also varies in time in certain cases, due to its joining or leaving the MANET for a variety of reasons: changes in geographical position, turning itself off for some period of time to reduce power consumption, etc. The MANET node’s wireless router role can however be seen as an advantage, and for this reason many innovative algorithms have been designed for them. One possible goal for these algorithms is to ensure smooth scaling when applied to very large number of nodes and transmissions. Simulations must often be used however to evaluate P2P/MANETs applications, given the difficulty and expense involved in deploying a real, large-scale testing network. Also, monitoring of nodes in a real network is a time-consuming and complex task, given that nodes are usually distributed geographically, communicate over changing routes and might only provide few output modalities (often limited to a few LEDs) used to track execution, even during testing phases. Moreover, the deployment an ad-hoc network in real size for testing purposes requires extensive resources: equipment, space, time and manpower. Thus, since this phase cannot usually be actually conducted it may in some cases be replaced by specially designed software tools and frameworks able to run repeatable experiments in controlled environments or provide meaningful numerical values based on averages and statistical analyses. Due to time and resource constraints however, even experiments such as these cannot be always conducted.

Once a P2P algorithm has been designed and its performance demonstrated analytically or through simulation, it would be ideal to take the proposed algorithm’s source code and simply port it and run in an environment closer to reality, but without the irreproducible effects encountered in real environments. The same source code would have to be used to avoid any potential differences between the specifications and implementation.

With the afore-mentioned facts in mind, we developed the Freemote emulator in order to provide a suitable platform on which to test P2P applications and algorithms designed for MANETs of any size (a few or several thousands nodes). To ensure their practical suitability and behavior credibility in the simulated environment, we decided to link the emulated nodes with real nodes, thus forming an integrated ad-hoc network environment. These capabilities were thought to be the most important ones compared to other last-step performance evaluations preceding full-scale deployment in a real environment. Thus, to facilitate many aspects related to software development we chose the Java language. This choice is also justified given the availability of Java programmable JMote prototypes developed at the University of Applied Sciences in Fribourg (http://www.eia-fr.ch). This Freemote emulator is able to run the same Java source code on the real and emulated nodes, thus bringing experimental results closer to reality.

Given that Java programmed nodes are not widely used, we chose a transmission format compatible with the popular Berkeley motes programmed using the nesC programming language (nesC, 2008). This internodes communication is in fact based on the TinyOS (TinyOS, 2008) message format, allowing the well-known MICAZ and TelosB Berkeley type nodes to be used as real nodes.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Boon-Chong Seet
Chapter 1
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Pascal Felber
The most important characteristics of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) such as broadcast and multihop communication, limited resources (particularly... Sample PDF
P2P Information Lookup, Collection, and Distribution in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
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Chapter 2
Thomas Repantis, Vana Kalogeraki
In this chapter the authors study the problems of data dissemination and query routing in mobile peerto- peer networks. They provide a taxonomy and... Sample PDF
Data Dissemination and Query Routing in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 3
Jie Feng, Lisong Xu, Byrav Ramamurthy
With the evolution of wireless technologies, mobile networks can provide much more interesting services and resources to users than before.... Sample PDF
Overlay Construction in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 4
Thomas Kunz, Abdulbaset Gaddah, Li Li
Peer-to-Peer computing is a popular, relatively new, distributed computing paradigm. It allows for a flexible set of participants to coordinate... Sample PDF
Mobility Support in a P2P System for Publish/Subscribe Applications
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Chapter 5
Leonardo B. Oliveira, Isabela G. Siqueira, Daniel F. Macedo, José M. Nogueira, Antonio A.F. Loureiro
Both Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are decentralized self-organizing networks with a dynamic topology, used to... Sample PDF
P2P over MANETs: Application and Network Layers' Routing Assessment
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Chapter 6
Fotis Loukos, Helen Karatza
Mobile Peer-to-Peer networks are an emerging topic in networking. One of the major usages is the cooperation between peers. The aim of this chapter... Sample PDF
Enabling Cooperation in MANET-Based Peer-to-Peer Systems
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Chapter 7
Tobias Hoßfeld, Daniel Schlosser, Kurt Tutschku, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Selfishness and Heterogeneity
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Chapter 8
Tobias Hoßfeld, Michael Duelli, Dirk Staehle, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Mobility and Heterogeneity
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Chapter 9
Wei Wu, Kian-Lee Tan
Caching and prefetching are two effective ways for mobile peers to improve access latency in mobile environments. With short-range communication... Sample PDF
Peer-Based Collaborative Caching and Prefetching in Mobile Broadcast
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Chapter 10
Mark Kai-Ho Yeung, Yu-Kwong Kwok
The widespread deployment of competing wireless technologies has created new research opportunities. In particular, the authors consider media... Sample PDF
Wireless Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming: Incentives and Resource Management Issues
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Chapter 11
Panayotis Antoniadis
The goal of this chapter is to analyze the incentive issues that arise in multi-hop ad hoc networks when their nodes are potentially mobile devices... Sample PDF
Incentives for Resource Sharing in Ad Hoc Networks: Going Beyond Rationality
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Chapter 12
Johann van der Merwe, Dawoud Dawoud
Group communication in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) generally occurs in the form of dynamic peer groups (DPGs). This chapter reviews the existing... Sample PDF
Key Management for Dynamic Peer Groups in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
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Chapter 13
James Walkerdine, Peter Phillips, Simon Lock
The growth of mobile devices with near PC equivalent capabilities has brought with it the possibility of mobile Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems. However... Sample PDF
A Tool Supported Methodology for Developing Secure Mobile P2P Systems
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Chapter 14
Spyridon L. Tompros
Enabled by the emergence of high-speed Internet access in last mile communications, P2P systems have witnessed significant growth in the recent... Sample PDF
Integration and Interworking of Fixed and Mobile P2P Systems
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Chapter 15
Erkki Harjula, Jani Hautakorpi, Nicklas Beijar, Mika Ylianttila
Due to the increasing popularity of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing, the information technology industry and standardization organizations have started... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer SIP for Mobile Computing: Challenges and Solutions
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Chapter 16
Kurt Tutschku, Andreas Berl, Tobias Hossfeld, Hermann de Meer
The telecommunication industry has recently seen two areas with very high growth rates: cellular networks, for example, GSM (Global System for... Sample PDF
Mobile P2P in Cellular Mobile Networks: Architecture and Performance
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Chapter 17
Norihiro Ishikawa, Hiromitsu Sumino, Takeshi Kato, Johan Hjelm, Shingo Murakami, Kazuhiro Kitagawa, Nobuo Saito
Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer technologies has functions to realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform and Its Applications for Mobile Phones
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Chapter 18
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Jean-Frédéric Wagen, Timothée Maret
Many innovative P2P algorithms designed for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) have been designed to scale smoothly when handling a very large number... Sample PDF
Evaluation Platform for Large Scale P2P Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
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Chapter 19
Alf Inge Wang
This chapter presents the Peer2Me mobile peer-to-peer framework, Peer2Me applications, and discusses the experiences from using the Peer2Me... Sample PDF
Mobile Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Framework and Applications
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Chapter 20
Antônio Tadeu A. Gomes, Artur Ziviani, Luciana S. Lima, Markus Endler
This chapter surveys the approaches to service discovery that are relevant to mobile peer-to-peer systems in a variety of scenarios. More... Sample PDF
Service Discovery Approaches to Mobile Peer-to-Peer Computing
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Chapter 21
Marco Conti, Franca Delmastro, Andrea Passarella
Recently, the popularity of p2p computing paradigm has been increasing, especially in the mobile environments, due to the large use of mobile... Sample PDF
Context-Aware P2P Over Opportunistic Networks
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About the Contributors