The Expertise Reversal Effect

The Expertise Reversal Effect

Slava Kalyuga (University of New South Wales, Australia)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-048-6.ch003
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

Cognitive studies of expertise that were reviewed in Chapter I indicated that prior knowledge is the most important 1earner characteristic that influences learning processes. Recently, it has been established that learning procedures and techniques that are beneficial for learners with low levels of prior knowledge may become relatively inefficient for more knowledgeable learners due to cognitive activities that consume additional working memory resources. This expertise reversal effect could be related to aptitude-treatment interactions (interactions between learning outcomes of different instructional treatments and student aptitudes) that were actively investigated in 1960-70s. The learner level of prior knowledge or level of expertise is the aptitude of interest in this case. The effect is explained by the cognitive overload that more knowledgeable learners may experience due to processing redundant for these learners instructional components (as compared to information without redundancy). As a consequence, instructional outcomes of different multimedia learning formats and procedures are always relative to levels of learner task-specific expertise. This chapter describes cognitive processes that cause expertise reversal effect and major instructional implications of this effect. The chapter provides a review of empirical evidence obtained in the original longitudinal studies of the effect, the expertise reversal for methods of enhancing essential cognitive load, and expertise reversal phenomena when learning from textual and hypertextual materials. The chapter also describes relations between the expertise reversal effect and studies of Aptitude-Treatment Interactions. Additional empirical evidence for the effect in other areas will be described in the following chapters in Section 2 of the book.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Dedication
Slava Kalyuga
Table of Contents
Foreword
Richard E. Mayer
Chapter 1
Slava Kalyuga
One of the major components of our cognitive architecture, working memory, becomes overloaded if more than a few chunks of information are processed... Sample PDF
Human Cognitive Processes
$37.50
Chapter 2
Cognitive Load Theory  (pages 34-57)
Slava Kalyuga
Cognitive load theory is a learning and instruction theory that describes instructional design implications of human cognitive architecture outlined... Sample PDF
Cognitive Load Theory
$37.50
Chapter 3
Slava Kalyuga
Cognitive studies of expertise that were reviewed in Chapter I indicated that prior knowledge is the most important 1earner characteristic that... Sample PDF
The Expertise Reversal Effect
$37.50
Chapter 4
Slava Kalyuga
Main implication of the expertise reversal effect is the need to tailor instructional techniques and procedures to changing levels of learner... Sample PDF
Assessment of Task-Specific Expertise
$37.50
Chapter 5
Slava Kalyuga
Availability of valid and usable measures of cognitive load involved in learning is essential for providing support for cognitive load-based... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Cognitive Load
$37.50
Chapter 6
Slava Kalyuga
Chapter VI describes specific evidence-based methods for managing cognitive load in verbal and pictorial information representations. According to... Sample PDF
Managing Cognitive Load in Verbal and Pictorial Representations
$37.50
Chapter 7
Slava Kalyuga
Most sophisticated multimedia learning environments include various interactivity features. Interactive multimedia learning environments respond... Sample PDF
Managing Cognitive Load in Interactive Multimedia
$37.50
Chapter 8
Slava Kalyuga
According to dual-coding theory, when learning concrete concepts, adding pictorial representations could be superior to verbal-only descriptions... Sample PDF
Managing Cognitive Load in Dynamic Visual Representations
$37.50
Chapter 9
Slava Kalyuga
Instructional simulation and games are usually used as substitutes for actual equipment, processes, real-life problems, and social situations. They... Sample PDF
Optimizing Cognitive Load in Instructional Simulations and Games
$37.50
Chapter 10
Slava Kalyuga
Personalized adaptive multimedia environments provide individual learners or learner groups with experience that is specifically tailored to them.... Sample PDF
Tailoring Multimedia Environments to Learner Cognitive Characteristics
$37.50
Chapter 11
Slava Kalyuga
This chapter describes some specific adaptive procedures for tailoring levels of instructional guidance to individual levels of learner... Sample PDF
Adapting Levels of Instructional Support to Optimize Learning Complex Cognitive Skills
$37.50
Chapter 12
Slava Kalyuga
The rapid diagnostic approach to evaluating levels of learner task-specific expertise was introduced in Chapter IV and used in several studies that... Sample PDF
Adaptive Procedures for Efficient Learning
$37.50
Summary of Section I
Summary of Section II
Summary of Section II
General Conclusion
Glossary of Terms
About the Author