Falling Behind: A Case Study in Uncritical Assessment

Falling Behind: A Case Study in Uncritical Assessment

Jonathan G.M. Pratt (University of Technology, Sydney, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-220-6.ch006
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This chapter presents the major findings of case study research investigating uncritical assessment of an institution-wide learning management system in an Australian university. Suburban University illustrates the ways in which a range of social and institutional influences, operating internally and externally to an organization, can affect managerial decision making. Many of the parties involved were unaware of the influence of some of these factors upon them at the time of assessment. When these parties also lacked a background in the areas they sought to manage (i.e., the educational enterprise of the university), critical assessment was made even more difficult. Therefore, universities that teach skills in critical assessment to their students can sometimes be uncritical in their own decision making, particularly when the vice chancellor fears “falling behind” other adopting universities and key organizational decision makers lack relevant theoretical frameworks to inform decision making in the areas they manage.
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I was talking to him the other day and I said you were coming out and I said, “how honest do you think we should be?” Because, I said “it’s a really intriguing topic that someone is actually going to ask the question, you know, how were these decisions [made] and against, how were these decisions evaluated basically”. And the short answer is “they’re not”. And I think you know that. And from a management perspective, I was interested because there’s a lot of research in management that tells you how you could go about these things, and who should be the stakeholders you know. But this place avoided doing all that, because, well, for whatever reasons. I don’t know why we’ve got WebCT as opposed to Blackboard. But once you’ve got it you know, you’ve got it for life. The cost for anyone in management to contemplate changing tools now, it’s just impossible. And that’s a shame because it’s not like it’s being used, it’s just expensive (An anonymous respondent from Suburban University1).

This chapter discusses the major findings of case study research investigating the process of examination and assessment of an institution-wide learning management system in an Australian university. The case explores the operation of a range of internal and external influences on the organizational decision making process, ultimately leading to uncritical assessment and underwhelming organizational outcomes.

Readers of this chapter will have the opportunity to see the ways in which a range of social and institutional factors interact to shape the assessment and decision making process in organizations. This chapter will thus provide an illustrative case study of the challenges involved in evaluating pervasive technologies, particularly when organizational leaders believe they are ‘falling behind’. It will also provide a number of recommendations for organizational leaders and decision makers.


Learning Management Systems As Pervasive Technologies

During the mid to late 1990s, a number of alternative strategies for delivering higher education utilizing new educational technologies became more accessible to universities. In March 2002, the first national attempt to assess the extent of online learning among Australian universities was published, based on a survey of 40 out of 43 Australian universities between August and September 2001 (2002). Online learning, according to these authors, comprised

Subjects or course components, in which at least some of the content is delivered and/or some of the interaction is conducted via the Internet. This may be optional or compulsory. (Bell et al., 2002, p. x)

In this study, the authors found that there were 207 fully online university award courses (comprising of multiple subjects or units) with no face-to-face component offered by 23 (58 percent) out of 40 responding Australian universities (Bell et al., 2002, pp. ix-x). These fully online course offerings were not, however, the most common form of course delivery among Australian higher education providers. The prevalent form of online delivery involved optional student participation on the World Wide Web (herein referred to as the Web) in 46 percent of units (whole subjects or course components), with all universities employing the Web to some extent for teaching and learning purposes (Bell et al., 2002, pp. ix-x).

Assisting this online delivery of teaching and learning were a number of commercial and in-house learning management systems, of which there were sometimes several systems within the same institution. The most popular of these learning management systems were WebCT (29 universities), in-house systems (20 universities), and Blackboard (17 universities), with institutions preferring WebCT and then Blackboard as institution-wide systems (Bell et al., 2002, pp. 22-23).

Bell et al. noted that there was little information available on the extent of online course delivery in other parts of the world at that time (Bell et al., 2002, p. 3). The exception was Canada where in 1999/2000, 57 percent of the 134 higher education institutions that participated in this research project claimed that they ran subjects that were delivered with no traditional face-to-face teaching component, not unlike Australia (Cuneo, Campbell, Bastedo, & Foye, 2000, p. 9).

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Jeffrey Soar
Varuna Godara
Chapter 1
Varuna Godara
Pervasive computing is trying to make the dreams of the science fiction writers come true—where you think of some type of convenience and you have... Sample PDF
Pervasive Computing: A Conceptual Framework
Chapter 2
Varuna Godara
The need for more and more flexibility (in terms of time and location) in business operations, contextbased services, decentralization of business... Sample PDF
Pervasive Business Infrastructure: The Network Technologies, Routing and Security Issues
Chapter 3
Deo Prakash Vidyarthi
The proliferation of the capable mobile devices has given the opportunity to utilize these devices for various purposes. The mobile devices being... Sample PDF
Computational Mobile Grid: A Computing Infrastructure on Mobile Devices
Chapter 4
Mark J.W. Lee
This chapter investigates the use of mobile digital technologies for learning, or mobile learning (mlearning), across a variety of education and... Sample PDF
Mobile and Pervasive Technology in Education and Training: Potential and Possibilities, Problems and Pitfalls
Chapter 5
Gaya Prasad
Microorganisms are ubiquitous in their presence. They are present in air, soil, water, and all kinds of living creatures. Varieties of microbes have... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Computing for Microbial Forensics and Bioterrorism
Chapter 6
Jonathan G.M. Pratt
This chapter presents the major findings of case study research investigating uncritical assessment of an institution-wide learning management... Sample PDF
Falling Behind: A Case Study in Uncritical Assessment
Chapter 7
Yvonne Lee, Martin Kornberger
In the rapidly changing digital marketplace, firms increasingly try to look for new ways to acquire, engage, and retain their consumers. In doing... Sample PDF
Strategizing in the Digital World: Aligning Business Model, Brand and Technology
Chapter 8
Helena Halas, Tomaž Klobucar
This chapter explores the influence of pervasive computing on companies and their businesses, with the main stress on business models. The role of... Sample PDF
Business Models and Organizational Processes Changes
Chapter 9
Te Fu Chen
To date, identifying barriers and critical success factors (CSFs) and integrating business model in implementing e-business for SMEs, have not been... Sample PDF
The Critical Success Factors and Integrated Model for Implementing E-Business in Taiwan's SMEs
Chapter 10
Lawan Ahmed Mohammed
The change in physical structures of computing facilities into small and portable devices, or even wearable computers, has enhanced ubiquitous... Sample PDF
Security Issues in Pervasive Computing
Chapter 11
Grace Li
Pervasive computing and communications is emerging rapidly as an exciting new paradigm and discipline to provide computing and communication... Sample PDF
Deciphering Pervasive Computing: A Study of Jurisdiction, E-Fraud and Privacy in Pervasive Computing Environment
Chapter 12
Reima Suomi, Tuomas Aho, Tom Björkroth, Aki Koponen
Accurate identification of individuals is a cornerstone of any modern society. Without identification, we cannot recognize the parties of different... Sample PDF
Biometrical Identification as a Challenge for Legislation: The Finnish Case
Chapter 13
Antony Glambedakis
This chapter sets out to inform the reader about the impact of pervasive computers in aviation passenger risk profiling. First is an overview of the... Sample PDF
Pervasive Computers in Aviation Passenger Risk Profiling
Chapter 14
Penny Duquenoy, Oliver K. Burmeister
There is a growing concern both publicly and professionally surrounding the implementation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and... Sample PDF
Ethical Issues and Pervasive Computing
Chapter 15
Phillip W.J. Brook
This chapter explores the implications of knowledge sharing in an era of pervasive computing, and concludes that, perhaps counter-intuitively... Sample PDF
Knowledge Sharing and Pervasive Computing: The Need for Trust and a Sense of History
Chapter 16
Patrice Braun
In view of the fact that women are playing an increasingly important role in the global economy, this chapter examines business skilling in the... Sample PDF
Advancing Women in the Digital Economy: eLearning Opportunities for Meta-Competency Skilling
Chapter 17
B.K. Mangaraj, Upali Aparajita
The future of pervasive computers largely depends upon culture studies of human societies. This forms a challenging field of social research because... Sample PDF
Cultural Dimension in the Future of Pervasive Computing
Chapter 18
Genevieve Watson
Pervasive computers cover many areas of both our working and personal lives. This chapter investigates this phenomenon through the human factors... Sample PDF
Outline of the Human Factor Elements Evident with Pervasive Computers
Chapter 19
Kalawati Malik
This chapter analyses the impact of computer and video games on the development of children. First introductory part of this chapter informs its... Sample PDF
Impact of Computer and Video Games on the Development of Children
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