During the last few years there has been growing literature on applications of artificial neural networks to business and financial domains. In fact, a great deal of attention has been placed in the area of stock return forecasting. This is due to the fact that once artificial neural network applications are successful, monetary rewards will be substantial. Many studies have reported promising results in successfully applying various types of artificial neural network architectures for predicting stock returns. This chapter reviews and discusses various neural network research methodologies used in 45 journal articles that attempted to forecast stock returns. Modeling techniques and suggestions from the literature are also compiled and addressed. The results show that artificial neural networks are an emerging and promising computational technology that will continue to be a challenging tool for future research.