Fostering Social Presence in a Blended Learning Faculty Development Institute

Fostering Social Presence in a Blended Learning Faculty Development Institute

David S. Goldstein (University of Washington Bothell, USA), Carol Leppa (University of Washington Bothell, USA), Andreas Brockhaus (University of Washington Bothell, USA), Rebecca Bliquez (University of Washington Bothell, USA) and Ian Porter (University of Washington Bothell, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2110-7.ch018
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To help faculty develop well-designed blended courses, the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000) was used to design and deliver a ten-week Hybrid Course Development Institute (HCDI) for faculty members from a variety of disciplines. The faculty experienced a blended format and developed courses based on the three components of the CoI framework: cognitive presence, teaching presence, and social presence, the last of which is particularly challenging to achieve. This chapter provides an overview of the HCDI structure, content, and assessment, and suggests ways to foster social presence in and beyond a blended learning institute for faculty members.
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Hybrid Course Development Institute

The UW Bothell Hybrid Course Development Institute (HCDI) was created in response to increased individual faculty interest in blended teaching and learning, demonstrated efficacy of well-designed blended learning courses (Means B, Toyama Y, Murphy R, Bakia M, Jones K, 2010; Sorg, 2002), popularity of blended courses with students, a need for coordinated faculty development in blended teaching, the opportunity for external funding to support the pilot project for the Nursing Program, and matching internal funding to extend this project to the campus. We received funding from a Promise of Nursing for Washington, Nursing School Grant Program administered by the Foundation of the National Student Nurses’ Association in July 2010 to work on increased student access to nursing education. We created a 10-week faculty development course that was delivered in a blended format during Autumn Quarter 2010. Six Nursing faculty members participated in and completed this blended course; each focused on either the development of a new course, or the revision of a current course into a blended format combining face-to-face and online content. For the HCDI, a blended course was defined as having between 30% and 70% of student coursework online (adapted from Sloan Consortium, 2010). In addition to the Nursing faculty, the UW Bothell Teaching and Learning Center sponsored an additional five faculty members from other academic programs on campus who also completed the HCDI. This cross-program mix of faculty was greatly appreciated by all faculty participants as they formed relationships and partnerships within and across program boundaries on our campus.

We based the HCDI on the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework developed by Garrison et al. (2000) because, as Shea and Bidjerano (2009) note, “faculty can benefit from understanding, emphasizing, and integrating the components of the model to guide the development of online [and, we would add, blended] courses” (551). The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework has been used widely as a model for structured learning. In an educational context, a community of inquiry is “a group of individuals who collaboratively engage in purposeful critical discourse and reflection to construct personal meaning and confirm mutual understanding” (Garrison, 2011, p. 15). The strength of this framework lies in its articulation of three interrelated concepts: cognitive presence, teaching presence, and social presence. In their well-known Venn diagram, Garrison and Vaughan (2008) show that any two of the elements in the trio interact with one another, while the intersection of all three components results in the holistic educational experience. We designed the HCDI to demonstrate the main elements of the CoI: Cognitive Presence, Teaching Presence, and Social Presence. The faculty participants received a copy of the Garrison and Vaughan (2008) book as a text for the HCDI and we both modeled the CoI elements, and required the participants to use the CoI in the design of their blended courses.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Walter Archer
Zehra Akyol, D. Randy Garrison
Chapter 1
D. Randy Garrison
This chapter discusses the epistemological assumptions and theoretical foundations of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework. Specifically, it... Sample PDF
Theoretical Foundations and Epistemological Insights of the Community of Inquiry
Chapter 2
David Kennedy, Nadia S. Kennedy
This chapter addresses, in psychohistorical, philosophical, and educational terms, the emergence of and prospects for the practice of a specific... Sample PDF
Community of Philosophical Inquiry Online and Off: Retrospectus and Prospectus
Chapter 3
Zehra Akyol
This chapter focuses on metacognition in relation to learning and cognition and discusses the potential of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework... Sample PDF
Metacognitive Development within the Community of Inquiry
Chapter 4
Aylin Tekiner Tolu, Linda Shuford Evans
The purpose of this chapter is to explain the role and place of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework within the history of distance education.... Sample PDF
From Distance Education to Communities of Inquiry: A Review of Historical Developments
Chapter 5
Kathleen Sheridan, Melissa A. Kelly, David T. Bentz
The purpose of the study presented in this chapter was to examine students’ perceptions of the importance of various indicators of teaching presence... Sample PDF
A Follow-Up Study of the Indicators of Teaching Presence Critical to Students in Online Courses
Chapter 6
Annie Saint-Jacques
For the past decade, the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework has been validated and applied to asynchronous online learning. This chapter proposes... Sample PDF
Effective Teaching Practices to Foster Vibrant Communities of Inquiry in Synchronous Online Learning
Chapter 7
Bart Rienties, Bas Giesbers, Dirk Tempelaar, Simon Lygo-Baker
Recent findings from research into the Community of Inquiry theoretical framework indicate that teaching presence may encourage critical inquiry... Sample PDF
Redesigning Teaching Presence in Order to Enhance Cognitive Presence: A Longitudinal Analysis
Chapter 8
David S. Stein, Constance E. Wanstreet
This chapter presents a coaching approach to promote higher-order discussion skills in synchronous chats. Combining the Community of Inquiry... Sample PDF
Coaching for Cognitive Presence: A Model for Enhancing Online Discussions
Chapter 9
Kim A. Hosler, Bridget D. Arend
The chapter is designed to provide online instructors with strategies and techniques for fostering greater cognitive presence in asynchronous online... Sample PDF
Strategies and Principles to Develop Cognitive Presence in Online Discussions
Chapter 10
Douglas Archibald
This chapter extends the body of research surrounding the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework and the literature on developing critical thinking in... Sample PDF
An Online Resource to Foster Cognitive Presence
Chapter 11
Jennifer C. Richardson, Ayesha Sadaf, Peggy A. Ertmer
This chapter addresses the relationship between types of initial question prompts and the levels of critical thinking demonstrated by students’... Sample PDF
Relationship between Types of Question Prompts and Critical Thinking in Online Discussions
Chapter 12
Christine E. Nickel, Richard C. Overbaugh
This chapter presents the results of a study that investigated the differential effects of cooperative versus collaborative instructional strategies... Sample PDF
Cooperative and Collaborative Strategies in Blended and Online Learning Environments
Chapter 13
Ana Oskoz
This chapter reports on a study that examined the construction of a community of inquiry in a blended, foreign language, undergraduate, lower-level... Sample PDF
Let’s Enhance Learners’ Cultural Discussions: Developing a Community of Inquiry in a Blended Course
Chapter 14
Yoshiko Goda, Masanori Yamada
This chapter provides suggestions on how to apply the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework to design computer-supported collaborative learning... Sample PDF
Application of CoI to Design CSCL for EFL Online Asynchronous Discussion
Chapter 15
Katrina A. Meyer
This chapter reviews the research on the CoI framework and student retention and relates the CoI framework to existing retention theories developed... Sample PDF
The Case for the Community of Inquiry (CoI) Influencing Student Retention
Chapter 16
Norman Vaughan
A number of educational researchers have stated that assessment drives learning in higher education (Biggs, 1998; Hedberg & Corrent-Agostinho, 1999;... Sample PDF
Community of Inquiry Framework, Digital Technologies, and Student Assessment in Higher Education
Chapter 17
María Fernanda Aldana-Vargas, Albert Gras-Martí, Juny Montoya, Luz Adriana Osorio
This chapter describes an institutional Pedagogical Counseling program-assessment and systematizing initiative in terms of an adapted Community of... Sample PDF
Pedagogical Counseling Program Development through an Adapted Community of Inquiry Framework
Chapter 18
David S. Goldstein, Carol Leppa, Andreas Brockhaus, Rebecca Bliquez, Ian Porter
To help faculty develop well-designed blended courses, the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000) was used to... Sample PDF
Fostering Social Presence in a Blended Learning Faculty Development Institute
Chapter 19
Martha Cleveland-Innes
Regardless of education delivery mode – face-to-face, online, distance, or some combination through blended learning – teaching (and learning) is... Sample PDF
Teaching in an Online Community of Inquiry: Faculty Role Adjustment in the New Higher Education
Chapter 20
Dodzi J.-A. Amemado
This research was undertaken in fifteen Canadian universities, using interviews of higher education teaching center managers and IT specialists, all... Sample PDF
Pedagogical Requirements in a University-Context Characterized by Online and Blended Courses: Results from a Study Undertaken through Fifteen Canadian Universities
Chapter 21
Sebastián Romualdo Díaz
This chapter explores how the foundational principles of the Community of Inquiry survey can be used to assess and evaluate parallel processes for... Sample PDF
Expanding the CoI: Finding the Hidden Wholeness in Online Learning and Online Working
Chapter 22
Phil Ice, Melissa Burgess
This chapter explores how emerging technologies may challenge the CoI framework to evolve and account for new types of learner and instructor... Sample PDF
Through the Looking Glass: Emerging Technologies and the Community of Inquiry Framework
Chapter 23
Viviane Vladimirschi
This chapter examines instructor multicultural efficacy in global online learning communities. To explore this phenomenon in the CoI framework, a... Sample PDF
An Exploratory Study of Cross-Cultural Engagement in the Community of Inquiry: Instructor Perspectives and Challenges
Chapter 24
Daniel Matthews, Leonard Bogle, Emily Boles, Scott L. Day, Karen Swan
This chapter reports on ongoing design-based research being conducted in the fully online Master of Arts in Teacher Leadership (MTL) program at the... Sample PDF
Developing Communities of Inquiry in Online Courses: A Design-Based Approach
Chapter 25
Yianna Vovides, Kristine Korhumel
This chapter describes the conceptualization and implementation of a cyberlearning environment as a community of inquiry (CoI). This environment... Sample PDF
Design-Based Approach for the Implementation of an International Cyberlearning Community of Inquiry for Medical Education
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