Fostering Transfer in Multimedia Instructional Environments

Fostering Transfer in Multimedia Instructional Environments

Gina J. Mariano (Virginia Tech, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-158-2.ch013
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Abstract

The role and promotion of transfer in multimedia instructional environments is an oft-neglected concept in instructional multimedia research. However, while most instructional multimedia research does not focus specifically on transfer, the majority of basic multimedia research conducted uses retention and transfer as dependent measures. The purposes of this chapter are to (a) provide a review of the current state of the transfer literature, (b) provide a synthesis of the existing literature on the evidence for transfer in multimedia instructional environments, and (c) provide a series of strategies for constructing and using multimedia for the purpose of fostering transfer. The significance of proactively creating multimedia instructional environments that fosters transfer lies in the benefits of creating knowledge that may be generalized and applied in the “real world.” Specifically, knowledge that may be generalized, applied, or transferred broadly facilitates the learner’s ability to solve problems of all types. In addition and unfortunately, even under the best of conditions, fostering transfer is challenging; thus, a proactive stance in fostering transfer is necessary to increase the likelihood of generating knowledge transfer.
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Background

Multimedia learning involves learning from instruction that involves more than one type of media (e.g., computer, speakers), modality (e.g., visual, auditory), and/or representation (e.g., animation, narration) (Reed, 2006; Schnotz & Bannert, 2003). For example, Mayer and Anderson (1991) found that students learned more from a multimedia tutorial addressing “how a tire pump works” that included both an animation and a narration as opposed to an animation or narration only. Research into multimedia learning has determined that, in general, multiple forms of media, modalities, and representations facilitate learning (e.g., Eilam & Poyas, in press; Mayer, 2005). This research into multimedia learning tends to focus on knowledge recall and transfer as dependent measures. The current chapter focuses on the dependent measure of knowledge transfer.

An examination of knowledge transfer in multimedia learning needs to begin with an understanding of transfer, in general. Knowledge transfer can be described as the ability to use or apply knowledge learned from one problem, situation or context to different problems, situations or contexts (Salomon & Perkins, 1989). In education, the goal is that knowledge learned in the classroom will be transferred to problems and situations outside of the classroom. Unfortunately, this goal is not always achieved and students are often unable to transfer information to contexts other then the one in which the knowledge was first learned (see Detterman & Sternberg, 1993). Detterman and Sternberg, in a review of the transfer literature, state: “First, most studies fail to find transfer. Second, those studies claiming transfer can only be said to have found transfer by the most generous of criteria” (p. 15). That said, transfer is evident in the literature on learning (see Fuchs et al., 2003; Georghiades, 2000; Singley & Anderson, 1989) and must be addressed in a comprehensive theory or approach to multimedia learning.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Robert Zheng
Chapter 1
Renae Low
Our knowledge of human cognitive architecture has advanced dramatically in the last few decades. In turn, that knowledge has implications for... Sample PDF
Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design in a Multimedia Context
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Chapter 2
Peter E. Doolittle
This chapter addresses the role that working memory capacity (WMC) plays in learning in multimedia environments. WMC represents the ability to... Sample PDF
Multimedia Learning and Working Memory Capacity
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Chapter 3
Anne E. Cook
This chapter focuses on issues dealing with the definition and measurement of cognitive load in multimedia and other complex learning activities.... Sample PDF
Measurement of Cognitive Load During Multimedia Learning Activities
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Chapter 4
Stephen K. Reed
This chapter discusses a theoretical framework for designing multimedia in which manipulation, rather than perception, of objects plays the... Sample PDF
Manipulating Multimedia Materials
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Chapter 5
Katharina Scheiter, Eric Wiebe, Jana Holsanova
Multimedia environments consist of verbal and visual representations that, if appropriately processed, allow for the construction of an integrated... Sample PDF
Theoretical and Instructional Aspects of Learning with Visualizations
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Chapter 6
Florian Schmidt-Weigand
This chapter introduces eye tracking as a method to observe how the split of visual attention is managed in multimedia learning. The chapter reviews... Sample PDF
The Influence of Visual and Temporal Dynamics on Split Attention: Evidences from Eye Tracking
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Chapter 7
Tad T. Brunyé, Tali Ditman, Jason S. Augustyn
Multiformat and modality interfaces have become popular and effective tools for presenting information in training and instructional systems.... Sample PDF
Spatial and Nonspatial Integration in Learning and Training with Multimedia Systems
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Chapter 8
Mike DeSchryver
We claim that the Web has the potential to be a quintessential multimedia environment for complex learning, particularly in ill-structured domains.... Sample PDF
New Forms of Deep Learning on the Web: Meeting the Challenge of Cognitive Load in Conditions of Unfettered Exploration in Online Multimedia Environments
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Chapter 9
Renae Low
In the field of multimedia learning, although research on cognitive effects and their implications for instructional design is rich, research on the... Sample PDF
Motivation and Multimedia Learning
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Chapter 10
Min Liu, Paul Toprac, Timothy T. Yuen
The purpose of this study is to investigate students’ engagement with a multimedia enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) environment, Alien Rescue... Sample PDF
What Factors Make a Multimedia Learning Environment Engaging: A Case Study
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Chapter 11
Michael J. Hannafin, Richard E. West, Craig E. Shepherd
This chapter examines the cognitive demands of student-centered learning from, and with, Web-based multimedia. In contrast to externally-structured... Sample PDF
The Cognitive Demands of Student-Centered, Web-Based Multimedia: Current and Emerging Perspectives
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Chapter 12
Lloyd P. Rieber
This chapter presents a review of research on the use and role of interactive simulations for learning. Contemporary theories of learning... Sample PDF
Supporting Discovery-Based Learning within Simulations
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Chapter 13
Gina J. Mariano
The role and promotion of transfer in multimedia instructional environments is an oft-neglected concept in instructional multimedia research.... Sample PDF
Fostering Transfer in Multimedia Instructional Environments
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Chapter 14
Kirsten R. Butcher, Sebastian de la Chica, Faisal Ahmad, Qianyi Gu, Tamara Sumner, James H. Martin
This chapter discusses an emerging theme in supporting effective multimedia learning: developing scalable, cognitively-grounded tools that customize... Sample PDF
Conceptual Customization for Learning with Multimedia: Developing Individual Instructional Experiences to Support Science Understanding
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Chapter 15
Mingming Zhou
We suggest that multimedia environments can benefit from learning as well as offer significant capacity to serve as research purposes. Because... Sample PDF
Designing Multimedia to Trace Goal Setting in Studying
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Chapter 16
Alan D. Koenig, Robert K. Atkinson
The first part of this chapter explores how narrative can be used as a cognitive aid in educational video games. It discusses how narrative is... Sample PDF
Using Narrative and Game-Schema Acquisition Techniques to Support Learning from Educational Games
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Chapter 17
Marian J.A.J. Verhallen
Advanced digital storybooks offer, in addition to an oral rendition of text, the possibility of enhancing story content through the use of video. In... Sample PDF
How Literacy Emerges from Living Books in the Digital Era: New Chances for Young Linguistically Disadvantaged Children
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Chapter 18
Wolff-Michael Roth
To learn by means of analogies, students have to see surface and deep structures in both source and target domains. Educators generally assume that... Sample PDF
Emergence of Analogies in Collaboratively Conducted Computer Simulations
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About the Contributors